|י172) שדמית שחורת-כנף|
. דומה מאוד לשדמית השדות
, נבדלת ממנה בצבע השחור של תחתית כנפה
, חסרה את הצבע הלבן על אברותיה
. צבעה כהה יותר ומקורה פחות אדום
. בית גידולה ערבות עשב, עמקי נהרות וחופי אגמים או ים
. מעדיפה אזורים מלוחים
. בארץ מבקרת סתיו שכיחה ומבקרת אביב נדירה
Subspecies and Distribution.
Glareola nordmanni Romania, through Ukraine to SW Russia and Kazakhstan. Winters in S Africa.
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25 cm, 85-105 g. Above brown with olive tinge, and white rump, flight feathers and deeply forked tail black, throat ochre yellow with narrow black border, breast brown, shading to white belly, bill black with red at base, legs blackish.
Separated from G. pratincola by black underwing coverts, lack of white trailing edge to wing, darker, more uniform upperwing, and less red on bill.
In Eorasian breeding areas inhabits saline and alkaline steppes, grassland, ploughed and arable land, in river valleys and along shorelines of lakes or seas.
Prefers saline soil with sparse vegetation, always with water or wet meadows nearby. Non breeding birds frequent open high altitude grassland or low-lying mudflats.
Food and Feeding
Insects especially, crickets, grasshoppers, locusts and beetles, also flying ants, termites wasps, bees and dragonflies.
Forages mainly on the wing, often in flocks of hundreds or even thousands of birds, especially when locusts are swarming, also feeds on ground by running swiftly after prey, usually hunts in early morning and late evening, often after dusk.
May-Jul in Black Sea region. Nest in loose colonies or several tens or hundreds of pairs on open ground, usually near water, occasionally several thousand in colony. Sites may move from year to year, even when still apparently suitable.
Nest is a simple scrape, sparsely lined with dry plant pieces. 3-4 eggs, incubation by both sexes. Chick similar to that of G. pratincola but somewhat darker.
Long distance migrant from Eurasia to W and S Africa, chiefly South Africa. Nomadic in winter range following swarming insect prey.
Arrival in breeding areas usually Apr-May, migration at high altitude, so passage often not observed from ground. Uncommon passage migrant through Israel along coastal plain, rare passage migrant through Saudi Arabia, which species probably overflies. Vagrant N and W to many European countries.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has declined markedly and now considered near threatened, requiring close monitoring of trends and numbers. Total world population now estimated or only 10,000- 25,000 birds, and declining.
In Israel subspecies Glareola nordmanni. Common autumn and scarce spring passage migranrt.