|י182) חופמי צווארון|
, אחד החופמיים הנפוץ ביותר, דומה בצבעיו לחופמי גדות
. נבדל ממנו בכתם לבן במרכז מצחו
. בזמן מעופו מתגלה פס בהיר לאורך כנפיו. רגליו כתומות-צהובות
. לצעירים אין צבע שחור על הראש ופס החזה החום אינו שלם בד"כ
, בית גידולו חופי ים חוליים או מכוסים בחלוקי אבן
. לעיתים גם ליד גדות של מקווי מים מתוקים
. בארץ עובר אורח שכיח ומבקר חורף מצוי למדי
Subspecies and Distribution.
C. h. hiaticula NE Canada through Greenland and Iceland to S Scandinavia, and S to NW France. Winter from British Is to Africa.
C. h. tundrae N Scandinavia and N Russia. Winters from Caspian Sea and SW Asia to S Africa.
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20 cm, 45-77 g, wingspan 50-57 cm. more robust plover than C. dubius and very similar to C. semipalmatus, but lacks basal web between middle and inner toes, and has slightly broader breast band, larger white supercilium and clearer yellow eye-ring.
Female has breast band and ear-coverts tinged brown on sides.
Distinct non-breeding plumage absent in nominate race. Juvenile resembles pale adult with buffy fringes, but these soon lost.
Race tundrae smaller, with darker, duller upperparts, often narrower white patch behind eye, and orange on bill often less extensive.
Along coast on sand or shingle beaches, sandbanks and mudflats, estuaries and, occasionally, rivers, lakes, lagoons, short grassland, flooded fields and some artificial habitats also occurs on tundra.
Prefers moist substrates, but rarely in shallow water. Generally, at least during migration, race tundrae occurs on softer sediments than hiaticula. Roosts communally, close to feeding area, on exposed, bare ground, or that with short vegetation, usually on coast, above high water mark.
Food and Feeding.
Mmoouscs, isopods, polychaete worms, crustaceans, amphipods and various insects.
Sometimes uses foot-trembling. Typically in small flocks of up to 50. Forages by day and night, often on tidal flats.
Apr around North Sea, Jun-Jul in Iceland, Jun in N Eurasia. Seasonally monogamous.pair-bond occasionally maintained over successive years.
Solitary or in loose neighbourhood groups, with nests 10-100 m apart. Nest is shallow scrape, lined with pebbles, debris and pieces of vegetation. 3-4 eggs, incubation 21-27 days, by both parents.
Chick pale buffy grey finely mottled with dusky and some cinnamon-buff above, white underparts, with blackish bordering band. Age of first breeding 1 year.
Migratory. Northernmost birds migrate furthest S, while southernmost breeders are also northernmost winterers. Some W European birds may remain close to their breeding grounds.
Mainly winters in Africa, but also in Mediterranean Basin, Iberian Peninsula, Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Small numbers migrate through, or possibly winter in, China and Japan.
Nearctic breeders all migrate across N Atlantic, in a single flight or via Greenland and Iceland, probably to winter in W Africa.
Race tundrae migrates via Europe, but also crosses Eurasian and African landmasses in broad front, towards E and S Africa. In Egypt arrives early Sep and departs late May, in South Africa Sep-Oct. Returns to breeding grounds late Mar to May. High degree of site fidelity during migration and wintering.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Population wintering in NW Africa and Europe 50.000 birds. Breeding population of race hiaticula 55.000-75.000 birds.
In Israel subspecies C. h. tundrae. Quite common winter visitor and cmmon passage migrant most coastal and inland waters.