|י185) חופמי אלכסנדרי|
. דומה לחופמי אלכסנדרי אך קטן ממנו
, מקורו ארוך יותר. לקודקודו צבע החול, עורפו לבן
. חזהו בצבע החלודה וחסר פס כהה
. פס העין כהה ומתמשך לעורפו
, בית גידולו חופי ים וגדות מקווי מים מתוקים
. משטחי חול ובוץ נמנע מצמחיה סבוכה וגבוהה
. בארץ מבקר אקראי נדיר
Subspecies and Distribution.
C. a. alexandrinus W Europe, E Atlantic Is and N Africa through Mediterranean, NE Africa, Middle East, SW and C Asia to Russian Far East and NE China. Winters S to sub-Saharan Africa, S Asia and W Indonesia.
C. a. dealbatus japan, Ryukyu Is and E and SE China. Winters S to Philippines and Borneo.
C. a. seebohmi SE India and Sri Lanka.
C. a. nevosus W,C and SC USA, NW,C and E Mexico, Bahamas, Greater Antilles and Netherlands Antilles. Winters S to Panama.
C. a. occidentalis Coastal Peru to SC Chile.
םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
15-17 cm, 30-55 g, wingspan 40-45 cm. Differs from most similar species by white collar on hindneck, black patches on sides of breast, black bar on forecrown, black eyeline. Very variable rufous cap.
Female has black areas replaced with brown to blackish brown. Non-breeding adult resembles breeding female.
Racial variation fairly complex. dealbatus very similar to nominate, but has longer bill, and non-breeding male can have little rufous on cap. Male of race seebohmi has no black bar on forecrown. Most seebohmi and occidentalis and some nivosus have white lores and no rufous cap. occidentalis and nivosus have greyer, often much paler, upperparts and are shorter-legged.
From coast to uplands, primarily inland in varied flat, open habitats with poor soil, usually close to water, often near margins of lakes, reservoirs, small sometimes temporary, pools or flooded ground. Also salt-pans, tidal mudflats and lagoons, salt marshes, sandbanks and along sandy river beds. Avoids tall, dense closed vegetation and steep or broken terrain.
Food and Feeding.
Mainly insects, such as beetles and flies, also crustaceans, molluscs and spiders. In brackish and salt water, chiefly crustaceans, polychaete worms and molluscs.
Sometimes probes in wet sand and mud and frequently feeds by foot-trembling. Usually in small flocks of up to 25 birds.
Apr-May in NW Europe, Mar-Jun in NW Africa, Mar-Jul in Iraq, from late Apr in interior W USA.
Monogamous, occasionally over several years. Polyandry and polygyny may occur if a parent deserts early in season, or if a parent hatches young or loses brood early.
Solitary or in loose groups, with nests usually more than 20 apart. Territorial, feeds in neutral area outside territory. Nest often near water on bare or scantly vegetated ground shallow scrape lined with small pebbles, shell fragments and vegetation. 3 eggs, incubation 23-29 days, by both parents, female by day and male by night. Breeds first at 1 year.
Nominate race mainly migratory N, dispersive and resident to S. Wintres in S Eurasia, Africa N of equator to W Indonesia. W European breeders winter mainly in SW Europe, origin of large numbers of W African winterers not known.
Dispersal from breeding grounds starts immediately after fledging of young from late Jun, and southward migration peaks in Sep. Passage through Morocco in Sep and largest numbers on Mauritania in Oct, passage through E Mediterranean in Sep. NW African breeding grounds reoccupied Mar-Apr, and northernmost breeding areas in Kyrgyzstan from May.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatend. Nominate race 70.000 birds winter on Atlantic coasts, 100.000 birds breed on Black Sea and E Mediterranean, and 100.000 birds winter in SC Asia.
In Israel subspecies C. a. alexandrinus. Quite common winter visitor and fairly common passage migrant, mainly along Mediterranean Coastal Strip. Scarce breeder.