|י187) חופמי חוף|
. גבו חום בצבע החול וגחונו לבן
. בצידי החזה כתמים אפורים
, מקורו עבה וצבעו חום אפרפר. פס עינו שחור
. בלבוש הכלולות לזכר פס חזה ערמוני
, בית גידולו בתקופת הדגירה אזורים מדבריים או חצי מדבריים
. בשאר השנה ליד חופי ים או שפכי נהרות
. בארץ עובר אורח שכיח ומבקר חורף שכיח פחות
Subspecies and Distribution.
C. l. columbinus Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and S Afghanistan. Winters Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and SE Mediterranean.
C. l. crassiostris Transcaspia to SE Kazakhstan. Winters in E and SE Africa.
C. l. leschenaultii W China, S Mongolia, S Siberia and Altai. Winters Australia.
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20-24 cm, 55-120 g, wingspan 55-60 cm. Larger than C. mongolus, with larger, broader head, larger bill, longer legs and somewhat paler upperparts. Legs usually paler greyish green, but rather variable.
Male has narrower and more sharply demarcated rufous breast band than C. mongolus. Female has black on head dark grey-brown, no dark stripe on forehead, less extensive chestnut coloration on breast band.
Plumages of non-breeding adult and juvenile very similar to those of C. mongolus.
Races generally very similar, deffering in bill shape and color, both of breeding adult and of juvenile. Race columbinus extensively rufous on back and also on upper flanks.
During breeding season found in deserts or semi deserts, at lower altitudes than C. mongolus. In open, uncultivated and treeless areas with bare, dry surface, usually near water.
During non-breeding season, mainly found on coast, on sheltered sandy, shelly or muddy beaches and estuaries, with large swamps. Usually roosts on sandbanks and spits.
Food and Feeding.
Mainly beetles, also molluscs, worms crustaceans, shrimps and other insects and their larvae. Occasionally lizards.
Feeds on mud or sand on intertidal mudflats, salt-marsh, shores of lades and rivers and pastures.
Apr-May in C Asia. Solitary. Nest is shallow scrape in ground, variably lined with plant fragments, situated in the open or among low vegetation. 3 eggs, incubation by both parents for at least 24 days.
Chick has crown, back and band down leg pale cream or straw yellow, marked with black spots and lines, eyeline, forehead and sides of head black, and hindneck collar and underparts white. tended by both parents. First breeds when 2 years old.
Migratory. Winters on shores of Australasia and Indian Ocean, but relation between breeding and non-breedinf quarters poorly known. Some birds follow coast and occasionally large flocks are seen on passage, typically mixed with C. mongolus. Apparently, strong fidelity to non-breeding sites.
Flocks form after breeding season betwiin mid Jul and early Aug, 1 month earlier in columbinus. Abundant in S China and Hong Kong late Jul to Nov. Arrives Australia mid Aug, S Asia and Sudan to Tanzania late Aug. Body mass peaks in early Apr in Australia.
Starts moving N from SE Asia in late Feb and reaches breeding grounds from mid Mar, most Apr.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatend. Birds wintering in E and SE Asia and Australia 75.000 birds, and probably 100.000 birds in SC Asia.
In Israel subspecies C. l. columbinus. Uncommon winter visitor and quite common passage migrant, along Mediterranean Coastal and Gulf of Eilat.