|י189) חופמי ערבה|
חופמי מגושם, בלבוש הקיץ ניתן לראות שפסי הגבות הלבנים
. V מתחברים על עורפו בצורת
. החזה ערמוני ובטנו שחורה. בחורף הצבעים מקבלים גוון אפור
. בית גידולו טונדרות, הרים ושדות מעובדים
. בחורף בנופים פתוחים ויבשים בפנים היבשת
. בארץ מבקר חורף מצוי ועובר אורח נדיר
Subspecies and Distribution.
Charadrius morinellus N Britain through Scandinavia and N Siberia to Chukotskiy Peninsula, and NE Kazakhstan and NW China through S Siberia and N Mongolia to SE Russia. Winters in N Africa and Middle East to Iran.
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20-22 cm, 85-140 g, wingspan 55-65 cm. Bulky plover, with reversed sexual dimorphism in size and plumage.
Unmistakable in breeding dress. Long white supercilia meet in "v" on nape. Narrow white breast band separates grey throat and upperbreast from bright chestnut lower breast.
Female more brightly colored than male, with blacker crown and belly. Non-breeding adult lacks bright colors, and has supercilia brownish buff.
Breeds on extensive open, flat uplands, mountain ridges and plateaux, with sparse vegetation of moss, short grass or lichens and bare patches of rock, in Arctic tundra and Arctic alpine zone.
Non-breeding grounds, include stony steppe, ploughed farmlands, semi-desert, including marginal cultivation and shrubby steppe.
On migration stages in exposed areas with some short vegetation, heathland, particularly near water.
Food and Feeding.
Insects: beetles, butterflies, moths, grasshoppers, crickets, ants and spiders. Occasionally snails, earthworms, especially in ploughed fields, and regularly some leaves, seeds, berries and flowers.
Sometimes feeds by foot-trembling. Associate with cattle in some areas.
Diurnal and nocturnal forager, primarily diurnal at southern breeding grounds.
May-Jun in Scotland and Norway. Seasonally monogamous, serially polyandrous and occasionally polygynous, depending on local sex ration.
Mating can take place on arenas. Sex roles reversed. No site fidelity apparent.
Solitary, but where suitable habitat is restricted breeds in loose neighbourhood groups 2-5 pairs. Usually feeds outside territory on neutral grounds.
Nest in short vegetation or on bare gravel or soil. Shallow scrape, lined with moss, lichens or leanes. 3 eggs, incubation 23-29 days.
Chick blotched cinnamon, white and black, with off-white nape, broad supercilium and underparts.
Tended by male. First breeding at 2 years old.
Migrates in broad front across Europe, staging at a few, often traditional, sites. Many birds probably migrate non-stop, especially in autumn.
Birds depart from Scottish first half Aug, Siberia from late Aug. Passage W Europe Aug-Sep, some birds stage in Alps at altitude of 2000-3000 m. Many stage to moult in V Caspian region, migrating further S until Nov.
Birds arrive in winter grounds from Sep. Spring migration begins late feb, passingW Europe Apr-May. Returns to breeding grounds in Scotland early May, Scandinavia late May and Lappland and N Russia May-Jun. During migration sometimes in flocks of 20-80 birds, but usually 3-6.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatend. Total birds population in Europe estimated 37.000 birds. In Asia 80.000 birds.
In Israel subspecies Charadrius morinellus. Quite common winterer in Negv and rare passage migrant.