|י177) קיוית להקנית|
. צבעה אפור חום, קודקודה שחור ופס לבן מקיף אותו
. הכנף והזנב שחורים ולבנים בדומה לשאר הקיויתיים
. בקיץ הבטן בצבע ערמוני כהה
. בית גידולה ערבות עשב יבשות
. חורפת בסוונות יבשות, שדות בור לא מעובדים ובדרך כלל ליד מקווי מים
. בארץ עוברת אורח נדירה ומבקרת חורף לא מצויה
Subspecies and Distribution.
Vandllus gregarius SC Russia and Kazakhstan. Winters in Sudan and Eritrea, Israel and Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan and NW India, possibly also Iraq.םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
26-30 cm, 150-250 g, wingspan 70-75 cm.
Olive brown lapwing with bold, white supercilia meeting on forehead and nape, black crown and lores, thin dark line behind eye, belly black and chestnut, legs blackish.
Female less intensely colored than male, especially on belly. Non-breeding adult has buff wash to supercilia and pale belly.
Breeding habitat mainly on steppes, dry wasteland, cultivated, ploughed and stubble fields.
During migration, found mainly on sandy plains with short grass, dry meadows, fallow land and cultivated fields.
On wintering grounds, prefers burnt steppe and savanna, uncultivated wasteland, dump pastures and harvested millet fields, usually near water.
Food and Feeding.
Insects, such as grasshoppers, beetles, crickets and moth larvae, spiders frequently small amounts of plant material.
Usually some small stones in stomach, occasionally remains of vertebrate bones and mollusc shells.
Diet varies through breeding season, in winter, apparently chiefly grasshoppers and other insects. Diurnal.
Apr-May in north. Monogamous. Before start of breeding season, parties of 6-10 birds land on open field for display fights of males in front of females.
Semicolonial, with neighbouring parties 25-50 m apart, each consisting of 5 up to 20 pairs, each pair is territorial.
Nests on bare saline patches or in short vegetation, near water, nest is scrape, unlined or lined with some plant material, pebbles and debris, but amount of lining material accumulates during incubation. 2-5 eggs, incubation 22 days, mainly by female. Chick pale pinkish buff to creamy buff above with black speckles and stripes.
Migratory. Migrates from breeding grounds by Aug-Sep, varying between years. Disperses through Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey and Israel. Migrates through Middle East mostly Sep-Nov and Mar. Reaches India and Pakistan by Sep-Oct, at least formerly, Sudan by late Oct. Uncommon migrant, wintering in small numbers on Arabian Peninsula.
Leaves wintering grounds in Mar-Apr and arrives on breeding grounds mid Apr to early May.
Status and Conservation.
Vulnerable. On steppes between R Volga and R Ural 1000-2000 pairs, but slowly decreasing. Population has decreased throughout range due to rapid cultivation of steppe areas and high grazing pressure on remaining grasslands. Many nests are destroyed by cattle and agricultural activities.
In Israel subspecies V. i. aigneri. Straggler.