|י194) חרטומית בינונית|
. חרטומית שחומה ומפוספסת בקוים בהירים
. בזנבו של הבוגר בכל צד שלוש אברות לבנות
, מקורה קצר מזה של חרטומית הביצות
, אבל הפספוס של גחונה מודגש יותר. מעופה איטי וכבד
. ומשמיעה קרקור כשהיא מוחרדת ממקומה
. בית גידולה משתנה ממקומות לחים ומכוסי צמחיה למקומות יבשים
. בארץ עוברת אורח נדירה בצד המערבי של הארץ
Subspecies and Distribution.
Gallinnago media Scandinavia through Baltic states, Poland and W Russia to R Yenisey. Winters sub Sahara Africa. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
26-29 cm, 140-240 g, wingspan 45-50 cm. Medium sized, bulky snipe. Differs from similar species by bold white tips on wing coverts, bold dark barring on white underparts, and unbarred white corners to tail. Distal half of bill has slight droop.
Female very similar to male, but averages slightly larger. Non-breeding adult has duller and darker upperparts. Juvenile like breeding adult, but duskier and less well marked, brown bands on white tail corners.
Usually in wide river valleys, floodplain meadows, tussock meadows, peatland, tundra with scattered bushes, and sometimes drier woodlands adjacent to marshes or bogs
After breeding, occurs in marshland, in short grass or sedges on lake edges or flooded fields, tracks in wooded areas.
Food and FeedingMainly earthworms, but also gastropods and terrestrial insects, such as beetles and tipulids, also seeds, mainly of marsh plants.
Probes in soil for earthworms, but also pecks from surface and feeds in very shallow water. Feeds singly or in small numbers. Crepuscular and nocturnal feeder.
Breeding.May-Jul. Polygamous. The only Gallinago with no aerial nuptial display in which distinctive sounds made by tail feathers. Instead, has complex lekking system, with males gathering after sunset on traditional display grounds. Performs elaborate display on top of small mound in which white outer tail feathers are distinctly advertised.
Female alone builds nest, incubates, and cares for young. Solitary breeder. Nest is shallow depression in ground, filled with some moss or grass, in thick vegetation, usually completely concealed. 4 eggs, incubation 22-24 days.
Chick cinnamon-buff or densely mottled ferruginous brown above with brown median zone bordered black with dense buffish white down tips. Young independent immediately after fledging.
Food and Feeding.
Diet includes molluscs, insects and there larvae, earthworms, occasionally crustaceans, seeds and other plant matter.
Feeds by probing in soft ground, or pecking from surface. Crepuscular, nocturnal and whin undisturbed, diurnal.
May-Jul. Monogamous. Flight disply usually solitary, but can apparently be performed by flock, flying in large circles above forest. Scattered solitary pairs at highly variable densitises, 2-50 pairs/km2. Highest concentrations in industrial clear-cuts in boreal mountain forests.
3-5 eggs, single brood, males do not participate in incubation.
Migratory. Departure from breeding grounds from early Aug onwards, and wintering on flooded grasslands in African regions just after rainy season.
Migrates across Turkey and down R Nile to Ethiopian plateau, arriving Aug-Sep. Only rare passage visitor in Egypt. In Ethiopia, large numbers stay until grasslands dry up in Oct, where after they move S and SW, following the rains.
Northward migration occurs in broad front over Africa Mar-Apr, and probably orientated more to W, crossing Mediterranean.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatend. World population estimated at 170.000-290.000 pairs.
In Israel subspecies Gallinago media. Very rare passage migrant.