|י197) לימוזה מצויה|
. גבה אפור חום וגחונה בהיר, זנבה שחור
. מקורה ארוך, ישר, דק ושחור בקצהו
. בשעת מעופה בולט פס לבן בכנפה ובזנבה קרוב לגופה
, בית גידולה מישורים לחים מכוסים עשב ובצות
. בחורף ליד שפכי נהרות ולגונות
. בארץ עוברת אורח וחורפת מצויה בעמקים הצפוניים ובמערב הארץ
Subspecies and Distribution.
L. l. islandica Iceland, Faeroes, Shetland aand Lofoten Is. Winters in Ireland, Britain, W France, spain and Portugal.
L. l. limosa Wand C Europe and Russia E to upper R Yenisy. Winters in Mediterranin and sub Saharan Africa, and E through Middle East to W India.
L. l. melanuroides Siberia, Mongolia, NE China and Russia Far East. Winters from India, Indochina, Taiwan and Philippines to Indonesia, New Guinea and Australia.
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35-45 cm, 160-500 g, wingspan 70-80 cm. Tall, elegant godwit with chestnut breast and upper belly. Dark brown barring on belly, with lower belly white. Mantle and scapulars blotched pale red, black and grey. long.
Long, straightish bill orange pink at base. long legs.
Variable numbers of brownish grey feathers in upperparts give untidy, half-moulted look. Combintion of distinctive black tail and white uppertail coverts and wingbar separates from L. lapponica. Female paler and less red than male.
Neck and breast pale cinnamon, more richly colored in race islandica, no barring on white underparts. Races islandica smaller than nominte, melanuroides smaller still. Both are darker red and have shorter bills than nominate.
Wet grassland with moderately high grass and soft soil, in lowlands, also grassy marshland, raised bogs and moorland, reclaimed areas and damp grassy depressions in steppe.
Winters in sheltered estuaries and lagoons with large intertidal mudflats, sandy beaches, salt marshes, salt flats, and inland wetlands, such as swampy lake shores, river pools, flooded grassland and irrigated rice fields.
Race limosa winters mainly in freshwater habitats, the others mainly in estuarine habitats.
Food and Feeding.
Invertebrates, insects, molluscs, ragworms, crustaceans, spiders, fish eggs, and spawn and tadpoles of frogs. Sometimes plant material, such as berries and seeds, especially of rice.
In winter quarters, race limosa feeds mainly on plant material, also takes chironomid larvae and snails.
Feeds by picking and by forward angled, prolonged probes. Locates food by touch or sight. Sometimes washes food. Usually feeds gregariously in winter and on migration, using communal night-time roosts in shallow water.
Apr-Jun, monogamous on long term basis. Often in loose, semi colonial groups. High degree of site fidelity, low degree of natal philopatry.
Nest is short vegetation, open to rather concealed, lined with thick mat of vegetation. 4 eggs, single brood, incubation 23 days, by both sexes.
Chick light pinkish cinnamon with fuscous bands and mottles on back, wing-pads and thighs.
Age of first breeding 1 year.
Migration on broad front. South migration late Jun to Oct, return passage Feb-Apr.
Race islandica migrates via Ireland to coasts of British Ia, France, Spain and Portugal, some to Morocco. Race limosa winters in W Africa S of Sahara, Sep-Mar, flying through France and Iberia, and pausing in N Morocco to moult.
Populations from C and E Europe and Russia winter in sub Sahara Africa from Mali and Chad.
Race melanuroides migrates through Mongolea, Manchuria, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines and China.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Total population estimated at 150.000-250.000 pairs.
In Israel subspecies L. l. limosa. common passage migrant and winter visitor. Mainly western Israel and northern valleys.