.יחל-תנבל תימורמ (268






Whiskered Tern
Whiskered Tern
Whiskered Tern




Chlidonias hybridus
Chlidonias hybridus
Chlidonias hybridus


לארשי

.המש ןאכמו רופאה הראוצו הרוחשה התפיכ ןיב תטלוב הנבלה היחל ץיקב :יחל-תנבל תימורמ
.םימודא הילגרו הרוקמ ,הריהבה הפנכ תיתחת הלגתמ הפועמ תעשב ,רפרפא בנזה ,ההכ רןפא הנוחג
,םיריהב םירפרפא םינוילעה הפוג יקלחו ןבל הנוחג ,םינידע םירוחש םיספב ספסופמל ךפוה רוחשה הדוקדוק .םי תיפחשל המוד ףרוחב
.תורהנ יכפשו תונוגל םי יפוח דיל התוארל ןתינ ןוניקה רחאל ,היחמצ ירוטע תוציבו םימגא ,תורהנ הלודיג תיב
.וב הרגד רבעבש ןופצב רקיעב הרידנ דע החיכש אל ץיקו ףרוח תרקבמו ,םיחלה םירושימה לכב החיכש חרוא תרבוע ץראב
16 ,א"י ארקיו ... ףחשה תאו ...
Subspecies and Distribution.
C. h. hybridus SW and C Europe through W Russia, Middle East and Transcaspia to SC and E Kazakhstan. Winters mainly in Africa and also SW Asia.
C. h. swinhoei Transbaikalia, E China and Taiwan.
C. h. indicus E Iran and Pakistan to N India.
C. h. javanicus NE India and probably Sri Lanka. Winters Malaysia to Indonesia.
C. h. sclateri Kenya to South Africa and Madagascar.
C. h. fluviatilis Australia. Migrates to New Guinea and Moluccas.

Descriptive notes.

Slender, medium tern, with wings more rounded than in typical tern. 26 cm, 60-100 g, wingspan 65-70 cm.
Forehead to nape black, with contrasting white cheeks. Upperpars, including rump and tail, mid-grey. Underparts grey, darker on belly, with contrasting pale grey underwing and white undertail coverts.
Shortish tail with only slight fork. Iris dark brown. Bill dark reddish, legs red.
Superficially resembles S. repressa and S. paradisaea, but darker below, with much shorter tail.
Non-breeding adult very pale above and below, with dark-flecked pale crown, black patch behind eye merging into dark band across nape, and black bill.
Female significantly smaller than male in all dimensions.
Races differ somewhat in coloration of breeding plumage, but only slightly in size, delalandii darkest, with white cheek stripe narrower.

Habitat.

Breeds on vegetated inland lakes, marshes and rivers, mainly in lowlands. Feeds over lakes, marshes, and rice fields, but also over sprouted farm fields, and coastal lagoons, tidal mudflats and estuaries.

Food and Feeding

Diet mainly aquatic and terrestrial insects, also small crabs, fish and frogs.
Flies back and forth or flutters up to 5 m above water, then swoops or drops to pick up small surface items. Often hawks insects over fields and lake margins. Generally forages within 1-2 km of colony.

Breeding.

May-Jun in Europe, Dec in Africa and Nov-Dec in Austrlia. Usually in monospecific colonies up to 100 pairs. Broad but flimsy nest placed on floating or emergent vegetation over wate. In very shallow water, nest may rest on bottom, alternatively nest of dry grass on water-lily leaves.
2-3 eggs, incubation 18-20 days. Chick black-spotted buff, with black forehead, creamy breast, black bill and pink legs. First breeding at 2 years.

Movements.

E European birds winter mostly in E Africa, with a few in S Middle East, those from Caspian and Turkestan zone winter from Iran to Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Birds from W Europe migraes to W Africa.
Small numbers of race swinhoei winter in Thailand. indicus irregular migrant in Nepal, usually in small numbers. Australian birds mainly nomadic, but those from S Australian migrate N.

Status and Conservation

Not globally threatened. Total world population estimated at 200.000 pairs.
Israel.
In Israel subspecies C. h. hybridus. Uncommon winter and summer visitor in north where formerly bred, and Fairly common passage migrant over lowlying.

C. h. hybridus
(in Israel)

C. h. hybridus

C. h. javanicus


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