|י 304) תחמס אירופי|
: תחמס אירופי |
. התחמס הוא עוף לילה מובהק וניזון מחרקים, לכן מתגלה נוכחותו ע"י שירתו
, צבעו אפור-כסף והוא מפוספס בחום-צהוב וכתום המשווים לו צבע של קליפת עצים
. ע"י כך יכולת הסואתו גדלה, זנבו וכנפיו הארוכות משווים לו במעופו צורה של נץ
, בית גידולו יערות וחורשים דלילי עצים, שדות פתוחים עם שיחים ועצים פזורים
. מורדות הרים וגבעות ועד לאזורים מדבריים למחצה
, בארץ ישנם ארבעה תת מינים, עוברי אורח שכיחים למדי ברוב חלקי הארץ
. מבקרי חורף וקיץ נדירים בצפון הערבה ובעבר דוגרים באקראי
... 'ואת התחמס ואת השחף ... ויקרא י"א טז
Subspecies and Distribution.
C. e. europaeus N and C Europe E through NC Asia to L Baikal region.
C. e. deridionalis NW Africa and Iberia E through S Europe, Crimea, Caucasus and Ukraine to NW Iran and Caspian Sea.
C. e. sarudnyi Kazakhstan, from Caspian Sea E to Kyrgyzstan, Tarbagatai and Altai.
C. e. unwini Iraq and Iran E to W Tien Shan and Kasthigaria, N to S Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
C. e. plumipes NW China and W and NW Mongolia.
C. e. dementievi NE Mongolia and Transbaikalia. Winters in sub Saharan Africa. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
Nightjar is night bird and best located and identified by his songs. 25-28 cm, 50-100 g, wingspan 57-64 cm.
Upperparts greyish-brown streaked blackish-brown with indistinct pale buff nuchal collar. Lesser coverts brown, rest of wing-coverts greyish-brown spotted buffish, showing buff line across forewing and buff line along scapulars.
Underparts greyish brown, barred brown and spotted buff, becoming buff barred brown on belly and flanks. Male has white spot on three outermost primaries and white tips to two outermost tail feathers.
Racial variation is generally clinal, birds becoming smaller and paler to E through range, with white wing spots of males becoming larger.
Habitat. Mainly lowland heaths with scattered trees and bushes, forest and woodland in dry open country.
Also chalk downland, wooded or scrub-covered, steppe, sparsely forested or stony hillsides, sand dunes, semi-deserts and deserts.
On wintering grounds in wooded country, dry coastal acacia steppe, forest clearings and highlands. From sea-level up to 5000 m during winter.
Food and Feeding.
Feeds on insects, diet includes moths, beetles, dragonflies, Orthoptera, cockroaches, bugs, caddisflies and flies.
Occasionally takes butterflies and flightless glow-worms, and also feeds on spiders and mites.
Hunts over open country, in clearings, along woodland edges and borders, in woodland glades and rides. Usually feeds solitarily, but loose feeding flocks sometimes occur. Also feeds on insects at artificial lights. May forage diurnally on overcast days. Drinks in flight.
Breeding. May-Aug, sometimes Apr-jul in some regions. Breeding often influenced by lunar phase.
Generally monogamous, and territorial. Nest site in open, beneath tree, bush or shrub, within upturned tree roots or among vegetation.
No nest, 1-2 eggs laid on ground, on leaf litter, pine needles or bare soil. Incubatoin 17-21 days. Chick semi-precocial, covered in dark brown and creamy-buff down, brooded by female for 10-15 days.
Migratory. Nominate race leaves breeding grounds late Jul-Nov, W populations moving S on broad front across Europe, Mediterranean and N Africa, E populations moving SW on broad front through Middle East and E Africa, returning to breeding grounds Apr-May.
Race sarudnyi possibly winters mainly in E and SE Africa. In spring, moves RE through Arabian Peninsula, perhaps late Feb-May.
Race meridionalis moves S on broad front across Mediterranean, N parts of Middle East and N Africa, and winters mainly in S and perhaps C Africa.
Race unwini leaves breeding grounds possibly Aug-Sep and moves SE on broad front acros Middle East, winters mainly in E and SE Africa, although small numbers occasionally overwinter in Israel, Pakistan and possibly NW India, return route in spring.
Race plumipes moves SW on broad front and winters mainly in SE Africa and race dementievi probably also winters in E and SE Africa.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Total European breeding population estimated at 800.000 pairs.
In Israel four subspecies C. e. europaeus, C. e. deridionalis, C. e. unwini. and C. e. sarudnyi Quite common passage migrant overall the country and rare to scrace winter and summer visitor, mainly in southern Arava. Former accidental breeder.