|י 335) זרעית השדה|
. עפרוני גדול, צבעו חום בעל ציצה קטנה וזנב ארוך ואברותיו החיצוניות לבנות
. המקור גדול ממקור החוגה והטופר האחורי ארוך וישר
. בית גידולו משתרע מצפון אפריקה דרך ספרד, אנגליה, טורקיה, אירן ועד יפן
. ניתן לראותה בנופים פתחים, שדות, חורשות , בתות צפון ואברש
. בארץ עוברת אורח וחורפת מצויה ברוב חלקי הארץ
... אמר ר' אסי שמונה ספיקין, חובא, חוגה ... חולין סב' ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.
L. a. arvensis Azores and Europe from England to Norway E to Ural, S to France through Hungary, Czechoslovakia to Eropean USSR. L. a. Scotica Irland, Scotland & N Faeroes. L. a. guillelmi N Portugal and N-W Spain. L. a. sierrae C & S Portogal and S Spain. L. a. harterti N-E Africa. L. a. cantarella N-E Spain, S France, Italy, C&S Yugoslavia, C Hungary, Greece to USSR & Caucasus. L. a. armenicus Transcaucasia, E Turkey and N Iran. L. a. dulcivox Steppes of lower Volga E to Yenisey, N Kazakhstan and montains of C Asia. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
19 cm, 22-38 g, wingspan 30-36 cm. Commonest and most widespread lark of west Palearctic, encapsulating from and character of family for most observers. This most exemplified by strong bill, fairly stout and long body, quite long legs, wings, and tail, streaked brown plumage, and terrestrial habits.
Chief marks of Oriental Skylark are short crest, open-faced appearance, fully streaked and quite sharply demarcated chest, white trailing edge to wings, and white tail-sides. Sexes similar, no seasonal variation.
Breeds in upper and lower middle latitudes across and beyond west Palearctic, spreading from continental to oceanic climates and from temperate into boreal zone.
Inhabits open surfaces of firm, level or unobstructed soils, neither arid nor muddy, although often moist, and preferably well clothed with grasses or low green herbage.
Presumed to have spread from natural steppe grasslands with deforestation and expansion of crops and pastures encouraging massive habitat changes, especially through 19th century.
Food and Feeding.
Plant and animal material taken at all times of year, but insects especially important in summer, cereal grain and weed seeds in autumn, leaves and weed seeds in winter, and cerel in spring.
Walks over ground taking items from soil surface or pecking at leaves, flowers, or seed heads. Seems to locate all food visually and to peck at it directly, though sometimes digs with bill in loose soil for newly sown, partly exposed grain, and uproots cereal seedlings.
Jul-Mar, north-west Europe, little variation over rest of range, except for delay in onset of breeding related to increasing latitude or altitude.
Nst on ground in the open or among short vegetaion shch as grass or growing crops. Solitary, nest shallow depression lined with grass leaves and stems, with inner lining of finer material. Rarely with rampart of small stones.
3-4 eggs,sub-elliptical, smooth and fairly glossy, grey-white, often tinged greenish, thickly spotted brown or olive. Incubation 11 days by female only.
Shows gradation from being wholly migratory in north and east of breeding range to making no more than local movements in south.
Northern and central Europe largely vacated in winter, when recoveries grouped in western Europe from Britain, Ireland, and Low Countries to Iberia, and in southern France and northern Italy. European migration on broad front, though denser along certain zones, and mountain chains cause passage concentrations.
In west Palearctic, southern races largely resident, with local flock movements in winter.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened.
In Israel four subspecies A. a. cantarella abundant migrant and winter visitor.
A. a. arvensis uncommon migrant and winter visitor mainly in N-W Israel.
A. a. armenicus a scarce winter visitor in North and Negev.
A. a. dulcivox accidental during winter.