|י 356) פיפיון מים|
. פיפיון קטן, אפור והיחיד מבין הפיפיונים שרגליו כהות
. נבדל לשני זנים, לפיפיון מים המקנן בהרים, ולפיפיון סלעים המקנן לחופי ים
. פיפיון המים אפור ובהיר יותר מפיפיון הסלעים ואברות זנבו החיצוניות לבנות
, מקורו קצר, ישר ומחודד. הרגל עדינה וארוכה וכן האצבעות
. טופר האצבע האחורית ארוך מחודד וכפןף במקצת. הזנב ארוך ומקודד במקצת
בית גידולו משתרע לאורך חופי אנגליה, סקנדינביה, דרום אירופה, מרכז אסיה
. ועד לצפונה המזרחי של בריה"מ וצפון אמריקה
. בארץ עובר אורח וחורף שכיח ברוב חלקי הארץ
Subspecies and Distribution.
1. Petrosus group - Rock Pipit.
A. s. petrosus Britain and Ireland, N-W and E France, and Channel Islands.
A. s. meinertzhageni Outer Hebrides.
A. s. kleinschmidti Faeroes, Shetland, Fair Is and Orkney and St Kilda.
A. s. littoralis Fenno-Scandia, Dinmark and N-W USSR.
2. Spinoletta group - Water Pipit.
A. s. spinoletta mountains of C and S Europe, from Iberia to Balkans and N-W Turkey.
A. s. coutellii E Turkey, Caucasus, N Iran.
A. s. blakistoni C Asua from N-E Afghanistan E to Transbaykalia.
A. s. rubescens N-E Siberia E from Taymyr to Kamchatka, and northern N America E to W Greenland, םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
1) Rock pipit - bulk, longer and stronger bill and legs, and fuller tail. 16-17 c, 18-24 g, wingspan 22-28 cm.
Quite large pipit with more robust form than smaller pipits. Shares Water Pipit's mottled upperparts, and dark bill and legs, but differs in grey and white or smoky outer tail-feathers, dusky underparts.
2) Water Pipit - size and structure as Rock Pipit except for slightly longer tail and legs and slightly shorter bill, bare part colors and flight as Rock Pipit. Plumage differs in less-streaked or plain underparts in spring and summer, white outer tail-feathers, and almost white underwing.
1) Rock pipit - Coastal. Ranges from middle to upper latitudes in temperate, boreal, and arctic zones, rarely penetrating more than a short distance inland and almost entirely attached to rocky sea-cliffs and crags, rarely much higher than 100 m and often down to shore level. Avoids totally exposed situations, preferring sheltered gullies or inlets, and islands, even far offshore.
2) Water Pipit - mountainous. Breeds in west Palercticin middle and lower-middle latitudes at considerable elevations, infrequently below 1800 m and thence up to 2500 m or even higher. Habitat here is on cool levels or moderate slopes, clear of treeline, birds foraging in fine weather on short grass, but when wet rather on dwarf heath.
Food and Feeding.
1) Rock pipit - mainly invertebrates. Feeds on ground among tide wrack and rocks, rarely making short pursuits to catch insects in flight, frequently wades in sea water, following waves as thet retreat.
2) Water Pipit - mainly invertebrates also some plant material. Feeds mainly on ground, but occasionally catches insects in flight by making short leaps or flying from perch. in cold spells in high mountains during breeding season, feeds around burrow-entrances of marmots.
1) Rock pipit - Jun-Apr in Britain and Ireland, May-Jun in Scandinavia. Nest site in hole or hollow in cliff, from near base to top, or in bankor under thick vegetation, never far from shore. Nest as Water Pipit brt with inclusion of seaweed as material, building by female.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy, grey-white, finely but heavily soptted olive-brown and grey. Incubation 14-15 days by pemale only.
2) Water Pipit - Apr-Jul in S Europe. Nest site in side of steep bank or hollow, well concealed by overhanging vegetation, sometimes at end of short tunnel. Nest, cup of grass stems and leaves, and moss, with slight lining of finer leaves and a few hairs, building by female.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy, grey-white, heavily mottled brown and grey, sometimes with dark zone or cap at broad end, and occasionally with dark zone or cap at broad end. Incubation 14-15 days by female only.
Migratory, partially migratory, dispersive, or resident in different parts of range, races differing considerably in extent and direction of movement.
Along ice-free shores Rock Pipits are mainly sedentary, and most European Water Pipits are resistant to winter conditions, only retreating slightly from severe frost - either south or to lower altitudes.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. No evidence of any change, but increasing in Finland and Denmark.
In Israel two subspecies A.s. coutellii a fairly common migrant and winter visitor in most parts, and A.s. spinoletta scarce winter visitor particularly in north and west.