|י 365) חנקן אדום-גב|
. חנקן קטן למדי, בעל מקור קצר ומאונקל, כנפיו קצרות למדי וזנבו ארוך
ראשו ועורפו של הזכר אפורים-כחלחלים, פס עין שחור ועבה בין גבת
. העין והגרון הלבנים. הגחון ורדרד, סוככות הכנף ערמוניים
. הזנב שחור ושוליו לבנים. הנקבה, ראשה וגבה חומים וגחונה ורדרד
. בית גידולו משתרע על פני רוב האזור הפלארקטי מלבד הטיגה והטונדרה
. מקום חיותו חורשים ויערות דלילי עצים, ערבות שטופות שמש, ושדות חמים ויבשים
. בארץ עובר אורח שכיח על פני רוב הארץ. דוגר קיץ שכיח למדי בהרי הצפון
...אמר רב יהודה צרדא שרי ברדא אסירי .... חולין סב, ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.
L. c. collurio Europe to W Siberia, S to Italy, northern halves of Yugoslavia and Rumania, Ukraine, and plains N of Caucasus.
L. c. kobylini Crimea and Caucasus S to Asia Minor, Cyprus, and N and W Iran, grading into Nominate in W Turkey and in Balkan area S from southern Yugoslavia and Rumania.
L. c. pallidifrons basin of middle and upper OB' river between Eloguy river and N-W Altai. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
17 cm, 26-38 g, wingspan 24-27 cm. Rather small, quite bold, raptorial passerine, with thick, hooked bill, fairly short wings, and relatively long tail, epitome of family in temperate Europe.
Plumage of male distinctive, with blue-grey and white head interrupted by black bill and mask, rufous back and inner wings, and white-edged black tail diagnostic.
Female and immature essentially brown above, dull white below with much barring. Habitually perches prominently.
Sexes dissimilar, no seasonal variation.
Breeds in middle latitudes of west Palearctic in temperate, Mediterranean, and steppe climates, mainly continental and lowland. Require sonny, sheltered, warm, dry or even semi-arid , and level or gently sloping terrain, with scattered or open growth of bushes, shrubs, to low trees providing hunting look-out posts commanding areas of short grass, heath, or bare soil suitable for small prey.
Food and Feeding.
Mainly insects, chiefly beetles, also other invertebrates, small mammals, birds, and reptiles. Most prey located from exposed, though usually low, perch using sit and wait strategy. Large moving insects spotted up to 30 m away, and caught in bill after shallow direct glide, sometimes with outstretched neck, which may terminate in brief hover before bird drops into vegetation. Also drops straight onto prey below perch. Vehemence of this action may be shown by strikingly worn forehead plumage.
Mid May to erly Jun in Finland, May-Jul in West Germany, mid May to erly Jul in N Rumania. Nest site, generally low in dense often thorny bush but sometimes high and easily visible in trees, in some areas not uncommonly in woodpiles.
Nest, loose foundation of often green plant stems, reed leaves and stems, roots, grass, lichen, hair, etc., compactly lined with grass, hair, moss, fur, reed or reed-mace flower-heads, plant down, etc.
3-7 eggs, very variable in shape and color. Sub-elliptical or oval to short oval, very slightly glossy, pale green, pinkish, buff, or creamy-white with band of light brown, olive, brownish-red, grey, or purple specks and small blotches near broad end.
Incubation 12-16 days, typically by female, but male recorded incubating, sometimes for long periods.
Migratory, wintering in eastern tropical and southern Africa. north to S-E and coastal Kenya, but main bulk of population from Zambia and Malawi southwards. A classic case of loop migration, northward passage in spring following more easterly course than autumn passage, and also notable for concentration of migration routes across and round eastern end of Mediterranean, even by populations breeding in extreme west of Europe.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Decreases recorded in many countries, especially in northern and western periphery of range where much influenced by annual fluctuations in summer weather.
In Israel three subspecies L. c. collurio a common migrant.
L. c. kobylini a quite common migrant mainly in spring, and breeding summer visitor in northern parts
L. c. pallidifrons migrant in small numbers mainly in spring.