|י 368) חנקן גדול|
. חנקן גדול, חזק ובעל חזות מרשימה בנוצותיו האפורות, לבנות ושחורות
. ראשו וגבו אפורים, פס העין, אברות הכנף ונוצת הזנב שחורים
. שולי הזנב המדורג, לבנים וכן פס הכנף, הגחון לבנבן-אפור
. בית גידולו משתרע מאירופה ואסיה דרך צפון קנדה וצפון אפריקה למזרח הקרוב
. בית חיותו מגוון מאזורים קרים דרך אקלים ממוזג לאקלים טרופי, מכוסי שיחים קוצניים ועצים
. נמנע מערבות, סלעים, שדות חשופים וחורשים צפופי עצים
. נוהג לשפד את טרפו על קוצי עצים, העוזרים לו לשסע את הטרף ואף משמשים כמזווה
. בארץ יציב ומצוי, נמנע ממרכז הגליל ומערבו
...אמר רב יהודה צרדא שרי ברדא אסירי .... חולין סב, ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.
L. e. invicilis breeds Alaska and NW & NC Canada (Yukon and North-west Territories, and extreme N British Columhia E to N Ontario).
L. e. borealis breeds NE Canada (N Ontario and N & C Quebec E to Labrador)
L. e. excubitor breeds N,C & NE Furope (E trom Scandinavia and C France) E to NW Siberia, S to S Russia. non-breeding S Scandinavia, Britain and W & S France E to Asia Minor, Caucasus and Transeaspia.
L e. sibiricus breeds C & E Siheria E to Kolyma Basin, Anadyriand and Chukotsk Peninsula, S to L Baikal, N Mongolia and SE Russia.
L. e. homeyeri breeds SF Europe (E Balkans, Bulgaria, S Romania, Ukraine E to foothills of S Urals) and SW Siberia (E tn N foothills of Altai, including Naryn region).
L. e. mollis breeds CS Russia (Altai and Sayan Mts) and NW Mongolia.
L. e. funereus Dzhungarian Alatau Mts (E Kazakhstan) and S & F Tien Shan (Kyrgystan-NW China). L. e. bianchii breeds Sakhalin' and S Kuril Is. non-breeding N Japan Hokkaido, rarely t:1rther S). םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
24-25 cm, 50-70 g, wingspan 30-34 cm. Largest shrike of west Palearctic, with notably aggressive look and beautiful grey, white, and black plumage. Most striking characters are quite long black bill and long black eye-patch, white patch on scapulars, white bar across base of flight-feathers, and long, graduated black, white-edged tail.
Sexes closely similar, no seasonal variation.
in contrast to other Lanius, breeds in west Palearctic from high to low latitudes, from fringe of arctic and throughout subarctic, boreal, and temperate to parts of Mediterranean, steppe, subtropical, and tropical climates, but avoiding oceanic and exposed areas, and not normally ascending above 1000 m, except extralimitally.
Avoids steep, rocky, bare, and densely forested areas, but in parts of range will occupy forest clearings, glades, and margins, and prefers taller trees than other west Palearctic Lanius, including coniferous as well as broad leaved species.
Food and Feeding.
Large insects, chiefly beetles, small mammals, reptiles, and birds. Main hunting strategy waiting and watching from high vantage point, may turn around in complete circle while watching and frequently flies to new look-out.
Flying insects, especially large Hymenoptera and beetles, taken after flight vertically upwards or pursued in direct flight.
Vertebrate on gound can bi spotted at 250 m. After swooping flight and vertica drop lands near vertebrate prey, covering any remaining distance in fluttering hops, strikes prey with bill at back of head without grasping with feet, sometimes striking repeatedly while dancing round to avoid bites. Prey killed by biting through spinal cord and neck. More bites may be delivered after death, then prey lifted in bill to be wedged or impaled for dismemberment of storage.
Mid May to late Jun in Lapland, end of Apr in Minsk region, Mar in Caspian Sea area,Feb-Jun in North Africa, end Jan to Jun in Israel. Nest site, in fork of tree or branch, in outer twigs, or on top of broad branch. In conifers often close to or against turnk, in absence of tall trees typically in low thorny bush.
Nest, solid, bulky foundation of twigs, plant stems, grasses, moss, string, plastic, etc., lined with rootlets, flowers, plant down, bark fibres, hair, feathers,etc.
4-7 eggs, sub-elliptical or oval, smooth and slightly glossy. Color variable, also within clutch, buff to bluish or greenish-white, heavily marked over whole surface with small blotches and spots of olive, purplish-grey, buff, reddish-brown, of brown, sometimes with weak concentration at broad end.
Resident and migratory. Extreme northern populations vacate breeding areas completely, and some southern populations apparently sedentary. Other populations consist of long-distance migrants, short-distance migrants, and sedentary individuals, but mainly resident from C Europe southwards. Marked annual variations in numbers of birds migrating in northern populations probably result from annual differences in breeding success and summer survival.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has declined in many areas, especially in west of range, increased in parts of Fenno-Scandia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia.
In Israel subspecies L. e. homeyeri individuals with characters approaching this form recorded in winter along Coastal Strip of Mediterranean.