|י 369) חנקן דרומי|
הופרדו D.N.A בעשור האחרון עם התקדמות המחקר בעזרת ה
. תת המינים של החנקן הגדול לשתי קבוצות טקסונומיות שונות
, לחנקן גדול וחנקן דרומי. בארץ נפוץ החנקן הדרומי על חמשת תת המינים שלו
, שנוי במחלוקת. יש נטייה לסווגו כמין נפרד, בגלל צבעו הבהיר יותר Pallidirostris כשתת המין
. גודלו, קטן יותר ותפוצתו הגיאוגרפית מתוחמת
. החנקן הדרומי, דומה לחנקן הגדול ונבדל ממנו בנוצותיו, בגודל, בקולו והתנהגותו
. ההבדל הברור הוא באזורי תפוצתו: דרום אירופה, צפון אפריקה וערבות ים תיכוניות
. בארץ מקנן החנקן הדרומי בחלקים נרחבים של הארץ מהגולן דרך שפלת יהודה הנגב והערבה
...אמר רב יהודה צרדא שרי ברדא אסירי .... חולין סב, ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.
L .e. meridionalis Southern France and Iberia. L .e. koenigi Canary Islands.
L .e. algeriensis Morocco N from Atlas mountains, N algeria and Tunisia.
L .e. elegans N Sahara from Mauritania to Red Sea, to N Sinai and central Negev and S to Port Sudan.
L .e. thersae N Israel Libanon. L .e. leucopygos S Sahara from Mali E to Nile valy in Sudan.
L .e. aucheri Levant and Arabia, Iraq to Iran, also W and S shore of Red Sea to N Somalia, grading into buryi Yemen. uncinatus Socotra Is. L .e. pallidirostris from lower Volga, Caspian Sea, and N-E and S Iran E to Afghanistan, Uzbekistan to S Mongolia. L .e. lahtora Pakistan and N Indea.
Southern Grey Shrike and Great Grey Shrike (lanius excubitor) are now recognised as different species. In the last decade by progress in the D.N.A research, the species L.excubitur have been separated into two different species. The status of L.m.pallidirostris (subspecies of L.meridionalis ) is still under investigation, and there is a tendency to classify it as a different species too.
Not only do they differ in some plumage details, but also in size, voice, behaviour and favoured habitat. Lanius meridionalis has larger tarsi and a more powerful beak than lanius excubitor. It has darker back with a brownish tinge in nape and crown. White supercilium rarely extends beyond the eye and blends into forehead. The underparts of meridionalis are pinkish grey, while excubitor's are white, or with a light grey wash. The eyepatch of Southern grey shrike is generally larger, standing out in sharper contrast with white cheeks and rest of underparts. It has a conspicuous white wingbar. Black tail is long, with white outer feathers. Legs and feet are blackish. Slightly hooked bill is black.
Both sexes are similar, with long and compact body and large head. Juvenile is similar to adults after lost of down. They are slightly streaked brown on breast.
In contrast to other Lanius excubitur, breeds in Shout Europe, North Africa and parts of Mediterranean, steppe, subtropical, and tropical climates.
Southern grey shrike favours open country of various kinds, from semi-desert to farmland, and from health and bogs to partly forest tundra, with scattered trees, bushes or scrubs. It needs open areas with lots of lookout points.
Food and Feeding.
Large insects, chiefly beetles, small mammals, reptiles, and birds. Main hunting strategy waiting and watching from high vantage point, may turn around in complete circle while watching and frequently flies to new look-out.
Flying insects, especially large Hymenoptera and beetles, taken after flight vertically upwards or pursued in direct flight.
Vertebrate on gound can bi spotted at 250 m. After swooping flight and vertica drop lands near vertebrate prey, covering any remaining distance in fluttering hops, strikes prey with bill at back of head without grasping with feet, sometimes striking repeatedly while dancing round to avoid bites. Prey killed by biting through spinal cord and neck. More bites may be delivered after death, then prey lifted in bill to be wedged or impaled for dismemberment of storage.
Mar in Caspian Sea area,Feb-Jun in North Africa, end Jan to Jun in Israel. Nest site, in fork of tree or branch, in outer twigs, or on top of broad branch. In conifers often close to or against turnk, in absence of tall trees typically in low thorny bush.
Nest, solid, bulky foundation of twigs, plant stems, grasses, moss, string, plastic, etc., lined with rootlets, flowers, plant down, bark fibres, hair, feathers,etc.
4-7 eggs, sub-elliptical or oval, smooth and slightly glossy. Color variable, also within clutch, buff to bluish or greenish-white, heavily marked over whole surface with small blotches and spots of olive, purplish-grey, buff, reddish-brown, of brown, sometimes with weak concentration at broad end.
.Incubation, 15-17 days, typically by female though male may take over for short stints.
Not globally threatened. Has declined in many areas, especially in west of range.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has declined in many areas, especially in west of range, increased in parts of Fenno-Scandia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia.
In Israel five subspecies:
L. e. aucheri resident in the Golan and Carmel, Jordan River Valley, Shomron and Judean Deserts, C and E Negev and Arava Valley.
L. e. elegans resident in S and W-C Negev.
L. e. theresae resident, limited to the Galilee.
L. e. pallidirostrisaccidental, recorded near Eilat.
L. e. homeyeri individuals with characters approaching this form recorded in winter along Coastal Strip of Mediterranean.