|י 372) ציצנית|
. צפור גדולה וחומה וניכרת בציצית הגדולה שבראשה
, פס העין והסנטר שחורים, בכנפיה צבע אדום וצהוב
. על השת אפור וקצה זנבה צהוב. אין הבדל בין המינים
. בית גידולה משתרע בצפון אירופה . אסיה ואמריקה
, מקננת ביערות דלילים של עצי מחט, בטאיגות
. במישורים ועמקים מיוערים במחטניים
. בארץ עוברת אורח אקראית ונדירה
Subspecies and Distribution.
B. g. garrulus Fenno-Scandia to western Siberia.
B. g. centalasiae C & E Siberia.
B. g. pallidiceps North America. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
18-20 cm, 40-64 g, wiingspan 32-35 cm. Medium-sized, vinaceous-brown passerine, unique in west Palearctic in having both bold crest on head and bright waxy appendages on secondaries. At close range, black bib, contrasting grey rump and rich brown vent, and yellow terminal band on black tail obvious. Call distinctive. Sexes closely similar, no seasonal variation.
Breeds in west Palearctic in upper middle latitudes in subarctic and boreal zones, stopping short of treeline, in belt of dense tall taiga, especially of spruce and pine, sometimes mixed with broad-leaved species such as birch.
Occurs largely in lowlands and valley forests, but also in uplands, although apparently not in mountains.
Prefers for breeding old stunted conifers festooned with hanging witch-hair lichen.
On switching in autumn to diet of berries, often confronts choice between finding adequate supplies for winter in native forests or launching eruptive movements to alternative supply sources in temperate lands, seeking profuse crops of fruits of rowan, rose, or other trees and shrubs, including introduced garden varieties.
Food and Feeding.
In summer, mainly insects, especially mosquitoes. In winter, chiefly fruit, also buds and flowers.
Change from insects to fruit occurs gradually according to weather and abundance of insects. Insects caught mainly by flycatching from tops of trees, shrubs, telegraph poles, etc. Fruit taken mainly from tree but sometimes from ground below it.
May-Jun in N Scandinavia, Nest site in tree, 3-15 m above ground, in low pine or scrub, usually close to stem, but in taller tree, often out on branch.
Nest, cup with base often twigs, then grass and reindeer moss, with lining of dry grass and sometimes fine lichens. 5-6 eggs, sub-elliptical to oval, smooth and glossy, grey-blue to pale blue, sometimes buffish, lightly spotted black and grey.
Incubation 14-15 days by female only.
Partial migrant, often making eruptive movements. In northern Europe regularly overwinters within breeding area and also annual limited movements to southern Sweden and Denmark with recent extension to north-central Europe.
Major eruptions not directly attributable to severe winters sometimes occur, with some evidence of 10 year cycle. These eruptions do not necessarily coincide with movements of other eruptive species, and do not always coincide in the countries involved.
Breeding populations of N Fenno-Scandia, and probably from further east, move both S-W to Britain and western Europe and also S to S-E to central and eastern Europe.
In North America, populations breeding in Alaska and N-W Canada E to Hudson Bay move to winter throughout southern Canada E to Nova Scotia. Other western birds move S to southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened.
In Israel subspecies B. g. garrulus straggler, in some places in the Negev.