|י 392) דוחל שחור-גרון|
. הזכר בולט בצבעיו, שחור וערמוני. הראש, הסנטר והזנב שחורים
. בצידי הצוואר שני כתמים לבנים, חלקי גופו העליונים שחומים
. בכנפיו חלק מסוככות הכנף לבנות, החזה והבטן כתומים ערמוניים והבטן לבנה
, בית גידולו משתרע בדרום האזור הפלארקטי מלבד צפון אירופה ומזרחה
. בצפון אפריקה ובאפריקה הטרופית
. אזורי מחיתו, שדות שיחים נמוכים במישורים ובגבעות
. בארץ ישנם 4 תת מינים עוברי אורח ומבקרי חורף שכיחים למדי
Subspecies and Distribution.
S. t. rubicola W and S Europe, N-W Africa, Turkey, and Caucasus and Transcaucasia, in N-W France and western Belgium and Netherlands.
S. t. hivernans Britain, Ireland, W Brittany and W coast of Iberian peninsula. S. t. variegata steppes of lower Volgan and from mounth of Ural river S along W Caspian Sea to E Caucasus.
S. t. armenica E Turkey, S and E Transcaucasia, N Iran, and S through Zagros mountains to Kerman.
S. t. maura N and E European USSR and S-E shore of Caspian Sea E to Lake Baykal, N-W Mongolia, Tien Shan, Kashmir, Afghanistan, and N-E Iran. S. t. stejnegeri E Siberia to E Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea, and Japan.
S. t. indica Himalayas. S. t. przewalskii C and S-W China, to E Kun Lun and Tibet. S. t. felix S-W Arabia.
15 further races Afrotropics, inclucing Madagascar and Comoro Is. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
11-13 cm, 13-17 g, wingspan 18-21 cm. Close in size to Whinchat, but a little shorter, more rounded wings and noticeably round head.
Smallest widespread chat of west Palearctic, with virtually diagnostic character: large, round, busby-like head, compact form, upright stance, often bold behaviour, constant nervous twitching of wings and tail, and whirring flight. when perched, recalls guardsman on sentry post. In flight, huge bumble bee.
Adult male has wholly black head and chestnut breast. Female and immatures far less distinctive, with most characters subject to complex geographical variation, most marked in decreasing saturation of fresh plumage, differences in underpart and tail patterns, and increase in facial contrasts in eastern races, which have pale supercilium and throat.
Sexes dissimilar, much seasonal variation.
breeds in west Palearctic in middle and lower middle latitudes, in temperate, steppe, and Mediterranean zones, except for disjunct range of E race maura, which extends into boreal zone of north-west of the region.
Absent from high-altitude mountainous regions in north of range, and from high forest, wetlands, and open expanses which are bare or have only sparse or low vegetation.
Not affected by lack of standing or running water. Within these limitations, inhabits wide variety of dry plains and hillsides, often submarginal for agriculture, characterized by scattered bushes, shrubs, stones, walls, or fences, used as look-outs or song-posts commanding lower heathland, grassland, or bare patches.
Food and Feeding.
Small and medium-sized insects and other invertebrates. Locates terrestrial prey from elevated perch, then flies, glides, or hops to ground, picking prey up on landing or while standing on ground.
Mar-Jun in N-E Europe, mid Apr in S and C Europe, mid May in USSR. Nest site on or close to ground in dense vegetation, at base of bush, in tussock, or low down in thick scrub. Nest, loose, unwoven cup of dry grass stems and leaves, lined with hair and feathers sometimes with wool.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and moderately glossy, pale blue, variably marked with red-brown often very finely but sometimes more heavily and with cap round broad end.
Incubation 13-14 days, by female only.
North African and Eurasian populations are migratory, wintering in northern Afrotropics. Sub Saharan breeding populations are resident. Nominate breeding Iberia, N Africa, and Levant is strictly a summer visitor to breeding range. Eastern races syriacus and familiaris migrate through east Mediterranean area and Middle East to winter in N=E Africa. Eastern birds cross N-W India in autumn.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened.
In Israel four subspecies S. t. rubicola The commonest from on migration and in winter.