|י 395) סלעית ערבות|
. סלעית גדולה, חומה בהירה, קצה זנבה שחור, השת ועל השת לבנים
רגליה ארוכות ועמידתה זקופה. בראשה, בולט פס הגבה הבהיר
. וקו שחור מחבר את העין והמקור
. בית גידולה אירנו-טורני, משתרע מטורקיה והמזרח הקרוב ועד לפקיסטן וטיבט
. מקום חיותה, מדבריות, מישורים טרשיים, ערבות וצלעות הרים
בארץ עוברת אורח נפוצה ברוב חלקי הארץ, חורפת שכיחה למדי בדרום הארץ
. ודוגרת קיץ לא שכיחה ברמת הגולן, בבקעת הירדן וצפון הנגב
Subspecies and Distribution.
Oenanthe isabellina S-E Europe, N and C Middle East, E across C Asia. Winters E and C Africa, Middle East to India. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
15-17 cm, 27-33 g, wingspan27-31. Largest wheatear in west Palearctic, with long, strong bill, long, evenly domed head, rather long body often held markedly upright, large wings, broad tail, and long strong legs.Oenanthe , with less contrast between upperparts and underparts than even females of most other species. Essentially isabelline-brown above and buff-white below, marked only by black lores in male, darker wings, broad white rump, and wide black band on tail.
In flight, wings show diagnostic pattern of dark rim above and below, with wholly pale under wing coverts. Sexes closely similar, little seasonal variation.
Breeds in west Palearctic in lower middle and middle continental latitudes on plains and plateaux up to 3500 m in warm arid climate.
Prefers level or gently sloping terrain, open but with sufficient isolated shrubs or large rock, and with clay or sandy soil but not loose sand or surface gravel. Found locally on river banks with rich grass cover, and even, in passing, on mown lawns, but prefers very short, sparse vegetation with ample bare patches.
Accordingly, largely a steppe and steppe-desert bird, dependent on opportunities for nesting in burrows, but also occurs in fores-steppe.
Food and Feeding.
Diet mainly invertebrates, ants and beetles particularly important.
Usually forages by making quick dashes along ground after prey. Sometimes uses perch to watch for prey, drops down to ground, and eats item before flying up to same or new perch. Always uses firm perch.
Digs in soil with bill to extract invertebrates, especially in early spring when few on surface.
End of Mar in Transcaspia, early Jun in steppes between Volga and Ural. Nest site normally in burrow of rodent or sometimes bee-eater, occasionally in natural hole or crevice in ground or rock.
Nest, bulky cup of dried grass, roots, and hair, lined with hair, wool, and feathers. 5-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy, pale blue, rarely with faint reddish specks. Incubation 12 days, by female only.
Migratory. Winters up to northern edge of Sahel zone in West Africa. Passage largely nocturnal and on broad front, probably mainly in a W-S-W or S-W direction in autumn.
Most of Ukrainian population probably migrates east of Black Sea, although records in Rumania and Bulgaria. Rather widespread migrant in Turkey, especially on Black Sea and southern coasts, and in western Anatolia.
Generally common or fairly common on passage through Middle Eeas. In Indian subcontinent, passage in Ladakh and Kashmir. Usually present on wintering grounds in Pakistan and north-west India.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Range expansion in USSR and Turkey, suggests possible increase.
In Israel subspecies Oenanthe isabellina very common passage migrant, and fairly common during winter, also uncommon breeding summer visitor and some extent breeder and resident in N Negev, Jordan River, and Golan Heights.