|י 381) אדום החזה|
. הציפור הלאומית של בריטניה. הכתם האדום והבולט שעל חזה מקנה לה את שמה
. חלקי גופה העליונים בצבע חום זיתי, הבטן לבנה, כנפיה וזנבה אפרפרים חומים
. המקור חום-זיתני, קצר, וחזק . הרגלים חומות וארוכות
, בית הגידול משתרע מאירופה למעט האזור הארקטי
. צפון אפריקה וחלקו הצפוני של המזרח התיכון
. מקום חיותו יערות, שיחים סבוכים, גנים ובאירופה גם בערים
. בארץ עוברת אורח שכיחה למדי בסתיו ובאביב, ומבקרת חורף שכיחה בכל רחבי הארץ
Subspecies and Distribution.
E. r. melophilus Britain and Ireland.
E. r. rubecula Azores, Madeira, W Canary Is. congindngal Europe east to Urals south to Spain, Italy, Greece, Asia Minor. From Denmark throug Netherlands, S-E England, W France to N-W Spain and Portogal. E. r. superbus Gran Canaria and Tenerife.
E. r. withebyi Tunisia abd Algeria, Corsica and Sardinia. E. r. tataricus W Siberia. E. r. valens Crimea.
E. r. caucasicus Cucasus and Transcaucasia. E. r. hyrcanus S-E Transcaucasia and N Iran. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
14 cm, 15-20 g, wingspan 20-22 cm. Small, robust chat, with rather large head and fat chest.
Grey to brown above, face and chest diagnostically drenched orange-buff to rufous-chestnut. Upperparts largely olive-brown, washed grey on back and wings, rump grey-brown subtly contrasting with warm brown upper tail-coverts and tail.
In winter, often a wing-bar formed by buff tips to greater coverts. Forehead, surround to eye, fore-cheeks, chin, throat, and chest orange, with rufous tinge in some lights but no full red tone.
Sexes similar, no seasonal variation.
Breeds in upper and especially middle latitudes of west Palerctic, in boreal, temperate and Mediterranean zones, in ocean and continental mainly humid lowlands and wooded mountains to treeline up to 2000 m.
Preferred habitat includes elements of cool shade, moisture, cover of at least medium height and not more than medium density, patches or fringes of open ground and song-posts giving adequate view without undue exposure.
Avoids hard dry surfaces of all types, prefers those lately disturbed or lending themselves to light probing for foraging. Accordingly avoids all kinds of wide open spaces, natural or cultivated, but also wetlands unless overgrown with woody vegetation.
Food and Feeding.
Main diet invertebrates, especially beetles and ants, also fruit and seeds in winter. Uses two main methods to locate prey:
1) perching on bush or low branch, flying down to eat prey then returning to perch.
2)hopping on ground, but usually not turning over leaves, etc. In woodland, thus depends primarily on animals moving on surface of litter layer, but also sometimes takes prey from branch or leaf, and occasionally catches items in the air.
Mid May to mid Jun in Britain and Ireland, Mar-Jun in Canary Is., Apr-Jun in Madeira, Apr-May in N Africa and Apr-Jun in Europe.
Nest sit natural hollow in tree-stump, bank, among tree-roots, rock-crevice, or hollow tree, from ground level to 5 m up. Nest bulky structure of dead leaves forming base, on which cup of moss, grass, and leaves is built, lined with finer material including hair, vegetable fibre, and occasionally feathers, building by female.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth but not glossy, white or faintly bluish, variably marked with sandy-red freckles and small blotches, often sufficient to color entire egg uniform reddish.
Incubation 12-21 days, by female only.
Most populations partially migratory,eith males more sedentary than females. Winters south to Saharan oases and Middle East.
Main wintering area lies from Ireland and Britain W to Morocco and S-E through Europe with few birds N-E of line from southern Denmark to Bosporus.
British and Irish populations largely resident, but some birds migrate SSW at least as far as southern Iberia
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. European populations estimated over15.000.000 pairs.
In Israel four subspecies E. r. rubecula common migrant and winter visitor in most parts.
E. r. hyrcanus a rare winter visitor in most parts.
E. r. caucasicus a rare winter visitor in east.
E. r. tatricus scarce in north and center.