|י 413) שחרור|
. הציפור הלאומית של שבדיה. השכיח מבין הקיכליים בארצנו
. שחור כולו מלבד המקור הצהוב. הנקבה חומה ומנומרת בגחונה בפסי אורך
. רגלו ארוכה, הכנף מעוגלת וקצרה והזנב ארוך ורבוע
, בית גידולו משתרע במערב ודרום האזור הפלארקטי וחודר לאסיה
. בכל אירופה מלבד צפונה ומישראל וטורקיה, עד דרום סין והודו
. בית חיותו יערות מחטניים ורחבי עלים, שיחים סבוכים, גנים, מטעים, פרקים ואף בתוך ערים
. בארץ יציבת מצוי בשפע בכל חלקי הארץ גם בחלק מהאזורים המדבריים
. ..ארבעה מיני שליו הן ואלו הן שיכלי וקיכלי ופסיוני ושליו ... יומא עה ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.
T. m. merula Europe except S Balkans, Greece, and S USSR.
T. m. aterrimus Balkans S from S & E Yugoslavia and Rumania, S Ukraine, Crimea, and Caucasus, south to Crete, Taurus mountains, and N Iran.
T. m. syriacus S-E Turkey, Levant, Iraq, and Iran. T. m. maurtanicus N-W Africa. T. m. cabrerae Madeira and W Canary Is. T. m. azorensis Azores. T. m. intermedius C Asia from Afghanistan E through China.
T. m. maximus Himalayas. T. m. simillimus S-W India.
6 further races in southern Asia. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
24-25 cm, 75-110 g, wingspan 34-38 cm. Medium-sized, round-headed, rather long-tailed, noisy thrush, differing from all other west Palearctic Turdus in uniformly or mainly dark plumage. Black in male, and rufous-brown in female. Only obvious features are yellow bill in male, pale throat in female.
Flight wavering, with fast bursts of wing-beats, rather long, rounded tail obvious. Song rich and fluting. Sexes dissimilar, little seasonal variation.
Exceptionally diverse, including dense woodland, varied types of farmland, heaths moors, some wetlands, and settled sites including inner cities. Found in middle and overlapping to lower middle and upper latitudes of west Palearctic, including oceanic islands and coasts as will as milder boreal and temperate continental regions.
Given shelter, will tolerate wet, windy, and cool situations better than very warm and dry ones, prefers moisture and shade, with ample access to bare ground, layers of dead leaves or short grass and herbage.
Food and Feeding.
Mainly insects and earthworms, also fruit from late summer to early winter. Feeds largely on ground throughout year, though also in trees and bushes. Foraging behaviour on grass meadow described as follows: typically makes series of straight line movements separated by short pauses after which bird may change direction.
Mid Mar to late Jun in W Europe and Britain, Mar-Jun in Canary Is. Nest site, typically against trunk of small tree or bush supported by small banches and twigs, or among branches, frequently in or on wall, outside or inside building, among pile of brushwood or other cebris, or occasionally on ground.
Nest, substantial cup of grass,straw, small twis and other plant material, usually on foundation of moss, occasionally incorporating decoration of paper, foil, etc, plastered inside with mud and lined with fine grass. 3-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy, usually pale greenish-blue, mottled and speckled light red-brown, though varying from brownish tint all over ot unmarked. Incubation 12-14 days, by female only.
Migratory to resident. In winter, birds centred aroun Mediterranean and Middle East, though some also in northern France, and there are records of birds in winter at lower altitudes than breeding areas almost throughout range of both European races and occasional winter records outside breeding range.
N European and British race, known to winter in soutern Spain and N-W Africa, and also recorded from Greece and Malta. In N-W Africa, both European races winter mainly in Atlas mountains, particularly on mountain Atlas fromTunisia to Morocco.
S European and W Turkish race winters in south of breeding range apparently only short-distance migrants or perhaps resident or making only altitudinal movements, as well as in north-west Africa, Malta and Cyprus.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Increasing in Europe.
In Israel three subspecies T. m. syriacus abundant resident throughout N & C Israel.
T. m. aterrimus a scarce winter visitor, in N & C.
T. m. merula rare winter visitor in N & C Israel.