|י 421) חטפית אפורה
. צבעה הכללי אפור חום, גחונה לבן, ראשה וחזה מפוספסים בפסים קצרים וכהים
. המקור שחור, רחב ושטוח. הרגלים שחורות. הזוויגים דומים
. בית גידולה משתרע על פני אירופה, קדמת אסיה ומרכזה וצפון אפריקה
, מקום חיותה שולי יערות וחורשים, שדות עם עצים פזורים, גנים
. מטעים, פארקים וגם בפרברי ערים
. בארץ עוברת אורח שכיחה על פני כל הארץ
. דוגרת קיץ מצויה במרכז ובצפון
Subspecies and Distribution.
M. s. neumanni Siberia E of nominat, from Irtysh river and Turgay region E to western Transbaykalia. Also Asia Minor, Crete, Cyprus, and Levant, E to Caucasus, Transcaucasia, and N-W Iran.
M. s. inexpectata Crimea. M. s. balearica Balearic Is. M. s. tyrrhenica Corsica and Sardinia.
M. s. sarudnyi Transcaspia and E Iran E To W Himalayas.
M. s. mongola S-E Altai, E through N Mongolia, then N to S-E Transbaykalia. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
14-15 cm, 15-18 g, wingspan 23-25 cm. Medium-sized, flat and broad-billed, lengthy flycatcher, biggest of family in west Palearctic and only species with well-streaked foreparts.
Plumage otherwise basically dun-grey and dull white. Flight fluent and sweeping.
Almost throughout west Palearctic, from Mediterranean and steppe through temperate and boreal to edge of Arctic zone.
Absent, however, from open areas devoid of trees and bushes and from densely forested, arid or exposed mountainous areas, although breeding freely up to 900 m and sporadically to 1500 m.
Dependent on availability of raised perches, especially in such deciduous trees as beech, oak, and chestnut, and lesser extent conifers such as pine and larch. Requires ample accessible space for catching flying insects present at adequate density, and accordingly has adapted readily to avenues, parks, gardens, orchards, and other man-made habitats.
Food and Feeding.
Mainly flying insects, especially Diptera and Hymenoptera, berries taken occasionally during breeding season, more regularly in autumn. Takes more prey from the air than other west Palearctic Muscicapidae, mainly by sallying out from perch, catching flying insect and returning to perch to swallow it.
Late May to mid Jul in W and C Europe. Nest site, on natural or artificial ledge, or in niche, requiring firm support below for loosely built nest, good view for incubating bird, and often, overhang above nest for shelter. On tree trunk supported by twigs, in creeper or in shallow crevice of tree or wall, on top of stacked wood, etc.
Nest, loosely built cup of fine twigs, rootlets, dry grass, moss, and lichens, lined with hair, feathers, and fine fibres.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth but not glossy, very pale blue, green blue, buff, or off-white, variably marked with red-brown and purple-grey mottling and blotching, often concentrated at large end.
Incubation 12-14 days, by female only.
Long distance migrant with all races moving to sub-Saharan Africa, majority wintering south of equator. Many birds are still on passage in central Africa including areas south of equator.
In spring this is one of the latest migrants to return breeding grounds, early Jun in extreme cases. Nocturnal migrant.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Estimated about 140.000.000 pairs.
In Israel four subspecies M. s. neumanni a common migrant, mainly in spring, especially along eastern parts, breeds in C and N of the country.
M. s. striata a common migrant over the whole country.
M. s. inexpectata rare on passage.
M. s. sardnyi rare on passage mainly in Eilat.