|י 427) שפמתן|
. דומה לירגזי, בעבר שויך למשפחת הירגזים
. ראשו אפור-תכלכל ומתחת מקורו של הזכר בולט שפם שחור
צבע גופו ערמוני, תת השת שחור, זנבו ארוך ומדורג, המקור צהוב
. והרגלים שחורות
. הנקבה חומה ובעלת זנב ארוך וגם לה כמו לזכר פסי כנף שחורים
. בית גידולו משתרע באזורים מקוטעים מאנגליה ועד למזרח רוסיה
. מקום חיותו חורשות קנים סבוכים
. בארץ מבקר חורף נדיר ולא שגרתי בצפון הארץ
Subspecies and Distribution.
P. b. biarmicus, western Europe east to Sweden, Poland, Switzerland, Iraly, S Yugoslavia, Albania, and Greece, also Transcaucasia.
P. b. kosswigi S Turkey, probably extinct.
P. b. russicus C Europe east from Austria and N-E Yugoslavia through southern European USSR to lower Volga river, Asia Minor, and from Transcaspia E through C Asia to China. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
17 c, 14 g, wingspan 16-18 cm. Stubby billed, short-wings, and very long-tailed, somewhat sparrow or tit like bird, with essentially sandy or tawny-russet plumage strikingly marked in male by grey and white head with bold black moustaches and bold black under tail-coverts, and in all plumages by black, cream, and white marks near or on wings.
Restless and vocal, with whirring, tail-trailing flight suggestion tiny pheasant, and commonest call diagnostic.
Sexes similar, no seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds across middle latitudes of west Palearctic in cool and warm temperate climates, predominantly continental and lowland, concentrated in small often isolated fragments of suitable wetland. Range excludes uplands, all bare, rocky, and open areas, forests, coasts, farmland, open waters or all kinds, and human settlements and artefacts. Concentrated in usually large tracts of reed and associated dense tall non woody vegetation growing by or often in fresh or brackish water, or immediately adjoining marshes and swamps.
Food and Feeding.
Chiefly invertebrates in summer, mainly seeds in late autumn and winter. Forages almost exclusively in wetlands on reeds, muddy ground and margins of open water. Moves across stems lying in water, feeding on insects from water surface, and from below surface, but not deeper than bill length.
Very agile on with each foot. When perched on stem, sometimes uses pressed against stem while feeding from bottom to top of seed-head.
Feb-Jul, peaking May-Jun in Israel, February onwards, more often Mar in Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Nest site, typically 1-7 m above ground inside cover, fork or crown of tree or bush.
Nest large, untidy, fairly deep cup of coarse grasses, rootlets, bark, twigs, and other dead plant material, with no distinction between outer structure and lining, though may be lined with a few feathers ane animal hair.
3-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy, uniform turquoise.
Incubation 13-14 days, by the dominant laying female at night, but at other times by all males of group, especially the more dominant ones.
Sedentary to partial migrant. European populations basically fairly sedentary, but subject to eruptive movements. Heading is dependent primarily on occurrence of reedbeds, irrespective of compass direction, birds travel typically in pairs and groups.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has spread in much of northern and eastern Europe and Iberia.
In Israel subspecies P. b. russicus very rare winter visitor to northern Israel.