|י 428) צטיה|
. קטנה, חמקנית וקולנית. גבה חלודי וכהה , הזנב והכנפים כהים יותר
. מעל עינה פס בהיר, גחונה לבנבן וזנבה מעוגל. אין הבדל בין הזויגים
. בית גידולה משתרע באזור הים התיכון והאירנו-טורני
. מדרום ספרד וצפון אפריקה, דרך דרום אירופה, המזרח הקרוב ועד לפקיסטן
. מקום חיותה שיחים סבוכים ליד מקווי מים מתוקים וביצות
. בארץ יציבה ושכיחה במרכז וצפון הארץ, מבקרת חורף נדירה עד שכיחה
Subspecies and Distribution.
C. c. cetti N-W Africa and Europe E to USSR, Crimea, W Turkey, and Crete.
C. c. orientalis C and E Asia Minor, Levant, and Caucasus area, E along N shores of Caspian Sea to USSR.
C. c.albiventris Iran E from Lorestan and S from Elburz mountains, Turkmeniya, Kazakhstan, E to Afghanistan. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
13-15 cm, 14-18 g, wingspan 15-19 cm. Medium-sized, quite robust warbler, with fine bill, domed head, short round wings, and relatively long, much rounded tail. Plumage rather dark and dull essentially rufous-brown above and greyish below, with dull white sopercilium and dull white spots on brown under tail-coverts.
Sudden loud outburst of song diagnostic. Sexes alike, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. In lower middle and now in some middle latitudes of west Palearctic, in temperate, Mediterranean, steppe, and some desert zones. Lives basically in warm situations where thick shelter normally enables survival throughout year, even though occasional severe winters inflict heavy mortality, and emigration may be enforced from northern fringes.
Since 1920 has successfully expanded over cooler oceanic lowlands fronting Bay of Biscay, English Channel, and North Sea, with wintr temperatures liable to fall below 0 C'.
Food and Feeding.
Chiefly insects, also other invertebrates, taken mostly from or near ground. Diet not uncommonly includes aquatic invertebrates, perhaps more often in winter, presumably taken from water's edge or by reaching down to surface from raise stems, etc.
Mid to end Jun in W and S-W Europe, including Britain, Greece and S USSR. Nest site, in thick vegetation supported on stems of reed or nettle among twigs, or occasionally in stouter branches of dense tangled scrub. Nest, bulky, untidy cup, with base of leaves and stems, finer stems and roots above, lined with feathers, hair, reed flowers, and other fine material.
4-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy, chestnut-red to deep red, sometimes paler. occasionally with band of darker color at broad end. Incubation 16 ays, by female only.
Varies from migratory to sedentary in different parts of range. Western race, nominate, mainly sedentary, with some northerly dispersal in autumn.
In Mediterranean, basically sedentary, but with evidence of local movements, more widespread in winter than summer.
S-W Asian race, makes altitudinal movements, and limited movement southward, and E race, migratory or chiefly migratory.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Marked increase and spread, especially to north and west, interrupted by cold winters.
In Israel three subspecies C. c. orientalis the resident form in N and C parts of the country. C. c. cetti scarce winter visitor, also passage migrant, but in small numbers. C. c. albiventris rare passage migrant and winter visitor in eastern parts.