|י 462) סבכי טוחנים|
. סבכי בינוני בגודלו, דומה לסבכי קוצים אך אפור וכהה יותר
. הכתם הכהה שעל לחיו בולט יותר משאר הסבכיים
. חמקני ונסתר יותר מסבכי קוצים
בית גידולו משתרע על מרבית אירופה למעט סקנדינביה ודרום מערבה
. דרך המזרח התיכון למרכז אסיה
. בית חיותו סבכי שיחים, חורשים ויערות דלילים, פארקים וגנים
. בארץ עובר אורח שכיח בסתיו ומצוי ביותר באביב ודוגר קיץ די שכיח בצפון
Subspecies and Distribution.|
S. c. curruca Europe from Fennoscandia, Britain and N France, N Italy, Balkans, Asia Minor, Levant, N&SW Iran, slopes of Greater Caucasus, middle Volga basin, and W Siberia.
S. c. blythi N Siberia, S. c. caucasica Turkey, Caucasus and N Iran and zagrossiensis SW Iran synonymized with nominate.
S. c. halimodendri Kazakhstan to Mongolia. S. c. telengirica deserts of S Soviet Altai and W and S Mongolia, is included within S. c. halimodendri
Motacilla curruca Linnaeus, 1758, south Sweden. Systematics of this species and S. minula and S. althaea controversial. All three traditionally considered conspecific, but recent exhaustive phenotypic and genetic studies suggest that they should be treated as separate species, differing not only genetically but also vocally and in size (but less markedly in plumage), in parts of Asia where they breed very close to each other, they are segregated ecologically and altitudinally.
12-14 cm, 11-14 g, wingspan 16-20 cm. Medium-sized, slim but not strikingly long-tailed warbler, with rather demure appearance and often more secretive behavior than S. communis. Dull grey-brown upperparts and dull white underparts with dusky head and white-edged dusky tail. Usually no contrasting wing-panel.
Sexes closely similar, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds in upper middle latitudes of warm continental west and central Palerctic, in temperate, steppe, and marginally in boreal zones. Mainly in lowlands but ascends in USSR to 1500 m. Avoids both arid and wetland areas and is not a forest bird, but will inhabit narrow shelterbelts and plantations, clearings in broad-leaved and mixed woodlands with plenty of undergrowth, and early stages of regrowth of felled or burnt timber.
Also frequents bushy hillsides, rough growth on woodland margins or by pasture or meadowland, roadside verges, parks, orchards, and riverain thickets.
Food and Feeding.
Chiefly invertebrates, also berries in late summer and autumn. Forages mostly in bushes and trees, taking insects from leaves, twigs, and bark. During early morning, forages in upper branches of trees, but during day mostly in middle and lower levels, occasionally on ground.
Mid Apr to Jul in N-W Europe, up to two weeks earlier in C Europe, Mid May to end Jun in Finland. Nest site, in bushes and small trees, and occasionally perennial herbs, especially those with thorns, fine leaves or suckers on trunk, facilitating attachment on nest.
Nest, deep cup of grass and herb stems and leaves, usually with small twigs and rootlets, plus moss and spiders' webs and cocoons, lined with finer grass and rootlets, hair, and some plant down.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical smooth and glossy,white to creamy-white, sparsely marked with olive or olive-buff and grey speckles, spots, and blotches, often denser at broad end. Incubation 10-14 days, by both sexes.
Migratory, all populations wintering in East Afric, apparently including both western race nominate and eastern race merzbacheri . Winters chiefly in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Sudan.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Increase in recent decades, estimates of 75.000.000 pairs. (1992)
In Israel two subspecies S. c. curruca the commonest form on passage. S. c. caucasica quite common on passage and breeding summer visitor in north. S. c. blythi a quite common migrant, mostly in spring. S. c. halimodendri scarce migrant, mostly in spring.