|י 482) ירגזי שחור|
. בינוני בגודלו, מגושם, בעל ראש רחב ומקור חזק וצבעי נוצותיו בהירים
. דומה לירגזי הרים אך מגוון פחות, הכתם בגרונו גדול יותר ולחיו בהירות יותר
. בית גידולו משתרע בין הבלקן לאירן ודרומה עד לחרמון
, בית חיותו מחופי ים התיכון ועד לרום של 2.000 מ
., בחורשים פתוחים של עצים רחבי עלים ולעיתים גם מחטניים
. בינות לערבות נחלים. פרדסים וכרמים
. בארץ מצוי יציב בחרמון ומורדותיו בלבד
Subspecies and Distribution.|
P. a. ater continental Eurasia Sto France, mainland Italy, Sicily, Greece, plains of E Europe and W-C Asia, N Mongolia, and Manchuria.
P. a. hibernicus Ireland. P. a. britannicus Britain. P. a. vieirae Iberia. P. a. sardus Corsica and Sardinia.
P. a. atlas Morocco. P. a. ledouciN Algeria and Tunisia. P. a. moltchanovi mountains of S Crimea.
P. a. cypriotes Cyprus. P. a. derjugini SW Caucasus and to NE Turkey.
P. a. michalowskii Caucasus and C & E Transcaucasia.
P. a. gaddi SE Azerbaijan and N Iran. P. a. phaeonotus Zagros mountains in S-E Iran.
P. a. chorassanicus N-E Iran and Kopet-Dag. P. a. rufipectus SW Kazakhstan to NW China .
P. a. martensi Nepal. P. a. aemodius China to Myanmar. P. a. pekinensis E China.
P. a. kuatunensis SE China. P. a. insularis Kuril Is. and Japan. P. a. ptilosus Taiwan. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
11 cm, 9 g, wingspan 17-21 cm. Small, sprightly tit, with short tail, rather fine bill, and apparently small head. Basically olive to slate-grey above and buff blow, has diagnostic combination of black head with white nape and cheek, and two white wing-bars.
Sexes similar, some seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds in west Palearctic from boreal through temperate to Mediterranean zones, in continental and oceanic upper and lower latitudes and at all elevations from sea-level to treeline.
Habitat selection closely related to size and morphology, probably adapted to life in conifers, and fine bill for foraging for small food items, especially in conifers.
In large parts of range conifers form almost the entire habitat, usually with preference for spruce. Where this is lacking, almost any other conifers will be accepted, even in mixed forest.
Food and Feeding.
Adult and larval insects and spiders, plus seeds in autumn and winter. Favourite plant material, seeds of spruce, often unavailable for years at a time when trees bear no cones. Moves along thickly needled branches, hopping, fluttering, and hovering. More so than other west Palearctic Periparus, shows great agility when foraging, frequently turning upside-down and hanging from cones or needles. Forages mostly on leaves, needles, and cones in upper parts of large conifers, seldom on thick branches of trunks.
Tends to be later in north than south, but geographical variation dependent more on local climate, especially as affected by altitude. Last week of Apr to last week of May in Finland, Apr-May in Denmark.
Nest site, hole in tree, tree-stump, rock crevice, wall, or ground. In many habitats commonly or mainly in ground. Holes in ground almost certainly used because of competition wih larger species for higher holes.
Nest, hole which may be enlarged if in rotten wood or ground. Nest-cup of moss, gernerally distinguishable from other Periparus as whole nest made of same kind of moss. Lined with hair and wool, often also a few feathers, but feathers never form main lining material.
7-8 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy, white, finely spotted or speckled red-brown, sometimes concentrated into band at broad nd.
Incubation 14-16 days by female alone.
Sedentary in south and west of range, but eruptive, sometimes in very large numbers, over much of remainder, and in some northern and eastern areas a fairly regular relatively short-distance migrant. Eruptions may involve large part of breeding area, or only isolated populations. Heading chiefly west or south-west, with tendency to avoid long sea crossings.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. One of the commonest tit in Europe, increased and spread mainly to south.
In Israel subspecies Periparus ater , (subspecies not studied), accidental mainly in winter.