|י 488) גיבתון לבן-כיפה|
גבתון גדול למדי, כיפת ראשו צהובה, הגב והשת ערמוניים והגחון
. צהוב ומפוספס בחום. הנקבה והצעירים דהים יותר
. שולי נוצות הזנב לבנים ובולטים במעופו
. בית גידולו משתרע על פני אירופה וסיביר
. בית חיותו שדות פתוחים או גבוהים, שטופי שמש ויבשים
. מעדיף שדות, סבכי שיחים, שולי וקרחות יער על פני צמחיה צפופה
. בארץ מבקר חורף שכיח למדי באזורים הרריים במרכז וצפון הארץ
... תימה מהו אמר לא ידע האי גברא דעוף טהור חייב לשולחי ...חולין קמא, ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.|
E. l. leucocephalos E European Russia and Siberia.
E. l. fronto China from Bogdo-Ula mountains to N-E Tsinghai and Kansu. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
15-16 cm, 28-29 g, wingspan 25-30 cm. Robust, Adult plumage of male and female strikingly different but both show white ground-color to underparts, long rufous rump, and bright white outer tail-feathers. Breeding male has striking white central crown and cheeks contrasting with bold black and chestnut stripes on face and chestnut throat. White underparts, interrupted by chestnut-spotted chest-band and flanks, similar but much duller in fresh plumage.
Female duller and patterned more like E. citrinella but no trace of yellow, with dull white ground-color to plumage most obvious in pale head and throat markings, tips to median coverts, and belly.
Sexes dissimilar, marked seasonal variation in female.
Habitat. Breeds in Asia, overlapping in range and partly in ecological niche with Yellowhammer. Lacks subarctic element to match that of Yellowhammer, but is predominantly boreal and cool temperate in breeding distribution, and is accordingly a much more pronounced migrant.
Winters commonly in flocks on foothills an plains of India and Pakistan, up to 1500 m, occasionally to nearly 2700 m. Here it feeds on ground, perching in trees, on bush-covered grassy slopes, and on stubble and fallow fields. Within breeding range, avoids treeless steppe or grassland, nesting in margins of sparse forest in wet valleys, depressions, flood plains, and even ravines overgrown with shrubs and trees. Prefers thin woods, forest clearings, or glades, favouring overgrown bushes, but sings also from tops of birches.
Food and Feeding.
Diet seeds and other plant material, insects in breeding season. Forages primarily on ground and in low bushes. On breeding grounds, feeds at forest edge or in large clearings, in winter quarters, where specializes on cereal grains, searches for food in flocks, often with other seed-eaters, on arable fields, waste ground, in orchards, villages, parks, by roads and tracks, ect. Often near water and swampy place.
May-Jun in Siberia, early May in Kazakhstan. Nest site, in depression on ground, under bush, grass tussock, fallen branch or tree.
Nest very like that of Yellowhammer, bulky foundation of tightly woven stalks, rootlets, and dry grass, lined with soft grasses and very often with horsehair.
4-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy, very pale whitish blue-green to pinkish or grey with faint purplish and lavender-grey spots and blotches plus a few brownish-black hairstreaks.
Incubation, 13 days, by female only.
Migratory, birds moving chiefly south to winter in southern and central Asia. Winter range overlaps slightly with breeding range. In zone of sympatry with Yellowhammer, more migratory than that species and makes longer movements.
In winter, fairly common in foothills and at low er levels in south and S-E Kazakhstan, but numbers vary greatly. Fairly widespread in Afghanistan, chiefly in east and north-west in Iran.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. No evidence of long-term changes.
In Israel subspecies E. l. leucocephalos uncommon local winter visitor in northern and central Israel, found to winter regularly on the Hermon, E Upper Galilee and Judean Hills near Jerusalem.