|י 498) גיבתון-סוף|
. גבתון גדול, ראשו גדול ושחור וממקורו יורד "שפם" לבן המתחבר לעורפו
. בחורף מאפירים הראש והגרון ואילו הבטן מפוספסת
. שולי הזנב לבנים וניכרים במעופו
. בית גידולו משתרע בכל אירופה ואזורים נרחבים באסיה
, בית חיותו מגוון מאזורים צפוניים קרים ועד לאקלים מדברי
, בינות לקנים הגדלים בביצות, וגדות מקווי מים מתוקים
. בחורף גם בשדות לחים בעלי צמחיה נמוכה
. בארץ מבקר חורף נדיר עד מצוי במישורים של מרכז וצפון הארץ
... תימה מהו אמר לא ידע האי גברא דעוף טהור חייב לשולחי ...חולין קמא, ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.|
E. s. schoeniclus W and N Europe from Britain to Urals, S to W and C France, N Switzerland,
N-W Austria, W Czechoslovakia, W and N Poland, N Belorussia, and Smolensk in European Russia.
E. s. passerina N-W Siberia from Urals E to lower Khatanga river S to Yenisey river,
grading into nominate in Pechora river, into pallidior in W Sibera, and into parvirostra E from middle Yenisey.
E. s. stresemanni Carpathian basin from E Austria and S Slovakia through Hungary E to N-W Rumania and S to Savaand lower Morava.
E. s. ukrainae N Moldavia, N Ukraine, and S European Russia.
E. s. pallidior Ufa region of N Bashkiria and S-W Siberia N to Tomsk, E to Altai, S to plains on N border of Kazakhstan.
E. s. parvirostra E from basin of Khatanga and middle Yenisey to Lena, S to Lake Baykal.
E. s. pyrrhulina S-E Siberia from Lake Baykal to Manchuria and Japan.
E. s. tschusii N-E Bulgaria, E Rumania, S Ukraine and Crimea E to lower Volga.
E. s. incognita E from Volga through uplands of N Kazakhstan.
E. s. witherbyiI Iberia, Balearic Is. Mediterranean coast of France, and North Africa.
E. s. intermedia Corsica, Italy, and Dalmatian cost of Yugoslavia. E. s. reiseri E Albania, Greece, and Turkey.
E. s. caspia E transcaucasia, N-W, n, AND s-w Iran, and Syria. E. s. korejewi S-E Iran.
E. s. pyrrhuloides N shore of Caspian Sea E through S Kazakhstan and Turkmenia.
E. s. harterti N Sinkiang, China, and W Mongolia.
E. s. centralasiae Tarim basin (China). E. s. zaidamensis Tsaidam basin (China). םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
15-17 cm, 18-24 g, wingspan 21-28 cm. Medium-sized to rather large bunting, seemingly large headed and thick-necked (male), with fairly lengthy form and distinctive voice. Breeding male instantly recognized by black head and bib and white collar, shared only by Pallas's Reed Bunting. Paler eastern birds, rare small individuals, and occasional aberrant head plumage present serious pitfalls.
Has habit of nervously spreading tail. Sexes dissimilar, marked seasonal variation in male.
Habitat. Most widespread in range of west Palearctic breeding Emmberizidae, inhabiting oceanic islands and peninsulas, and continental plains from arctic through boreal, temperate, and Mediterranean to steppe and even desert climatic zones. Yet within this vast range, choice of occupied sites is ecologically restricted to particular types of dense and prolific fairly low vegetation, mainly associated with intense soil moisture. Avoids both closed forest and typical open country, as well as bare, rocky, or frozen surfaces, steep or broken ground, and areas of immediate human disturbance or settlement.
Food and Feeding.
seeds and other plant material, invertebrates in breeding season, and also opportunistically during remainder of year. Takes plant and animal material on ground among sedges, rushes, reeds, etc., in pasture and marshy grasslands, and also low in waterside bushes and trees willow, alder, or on stems of reed. Outside breeding season, more often on ground in open countryside and cultivated fields, weedy areas, woodland clearings, uplands, etc., well away from water, often in flocks with other seed-eaters.
May-Jul in England, mid May to late Jun in Finland, Apr-Jul in Eastern Germany.
Nest site, usually well hidden on ground or on sedge tussocks, heaps of dead rushes, reeds, etc., by water, also up to 4 m above ground.
Nest, foundation of stems and blades of sedges, grasses, and other waterside plants, occasionally small twigs, lined with finer plant material, moss, rootlets, and sometimes hair or feathers.
4-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. Very pale purplish, lilac-grey, or olive-brown, rarely buffish or greenish, with scrawls, spots, and blotches of purplish-brownish-black irregularly distributed over whole surface, or concentrated at either end.
Incubation, 12-15 days, by female only.
Northern group schoeniclus sedentary to migratory, southern group pyrrhuloides of races chiefly sedentary. Winters in areas with little or no snow cover making mid-winter flights if snowfall persists. In Europe, nominate migratory in N-E, increasingly sedentary towards S-W, migrants head between SSW and W.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Apparently no general trends, but local and regional changes, attributed to various causes.
In Israel four subspecies
E. s. schoeniclus uncommon migrant and winter visitor.
E. s. intermediascarce but locally uncommon migrant and winter visitor, mainly in north and west.
E. s. ukrainae a scarce winter visitor, chiefly in northeastern parts.
E. s. pallidior individuals resembling this form recorded rarely.