|י 489) גיבתון צהוב|
גבתון גדול למדי, כיפת ראשו צהובה, הגב והשת ערמוניים והגחון
. צהוב ומפוספס בחום. הנקבה והצעירים דהים יותר
. שולי נוצות הזנב לבנים ובולטים במעופו
. בית גידולו משתרע על פני אירופה וסיביר
. בית חיותו שדות פתוחים או גבוהים, שטופי שמש ויבשים
. מעדיף שדות, סבכי שיחים, שולי וקרחות יער על פני צמחיה צפופה
. בארץ מבקר חורף שכיח למדי באזורים הרריים במרכז וצפון הארץ
... תימה מהו אמר לא ידע האי גברא דעוף טהור חייב לשולחי ...חולין קמא, ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.|
E. c. citrinella W Europe from Norway, S-W England, and N Spain E to extreme
N-W Eropean Russia, poland, W Czechoslovakia, W Hungary and W Yugoslavia,
grading into caliginosa in western half of England and into eruthrogenys in W European Russia, Baltic states,
W Belorussia, W Ukraine, Slovakia, E Hungary, W and C Rumania, E and S Yugoslavia, and Greece.
E. c. caliginosa Scotlad, Ireland, Isle of Man, and Wales.
E. c. erythrogenys E Europe and Asia, E from C 40' E in north and from C 25' E in south. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
16-17 cm, 29 g, wingspan 23-29 cm. Rather large bunting, with noticeably attenuated rear body and tail. Matched closely in size and form only by Pine Bunting. Adult plumage features basically lemon-yellow head streaked warm brown upperparts, long rufous-chestnut rump, yellow underparts with streaked chest, and bright white outer tail-feathers.
Immature far less distinctive, with less yellow and more obvious streaks on underparts. Song distinctive.
Sexes dissimilar, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds across temperate and boreal zones of west Palearctic, mainly in open lowlands or hilly country, in both continental and oceanic climates. Prefers dry sunny habitats with fairly rich and varied vegetation, avoiding dense forest, undrained wetlands, towns, or busy inhabited areas.
Probably originally based on edges of open areas of forest and fringing scrub of gorse, broom, hawthorn, and juniper, together with northern birch zone. Has profited by farming to extend widely across cultivated land with hedges, plantations, and paths or highways flanked by trees and bushes, stops short of gardens, and ornamental parks.
Food and Feeding.
Seeds, chiefly of grasses, invertebrates in breeding season and casually throughout remainder of year. Feeds almost wholly on ground. In spring, forages near nest-sites, in woodland clearings and borders, by hedges and tracks, in newly-sown fields, etc. In summer and autumn, on pasture and arable land, waste ground, stubble, and other harvested fields. in winter, also in agricultural areas, but in severe weather, particularly snow, comes to settlements, farmyards, animal feed etc. Outside breeding season, feeds in flocks, often with other seed-eaters.
May-Jun in Britain and Finland, Apr-Jul in France, May to mid Jun in Italy. Nest site, nearly always on or very close to ground, well hidden among grass or herbage. Typically against bank or base of hedge, small tree, bush, or well inside bramble.
Nest, dry grass, plant stems, straw, leaves, and some moss lined with rootlets, fine grass, and horsehair. nests in bushes larger and bulkier than those on ground.
3-5 eggs, sub-elliptical to short sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy or non glossy. Highly variable in color, white, tinted bluish, greyish, or purplish, usually with faint, fine spotting or thin scribbles in pale violet-grey.
Sedentary to migratory, with most populations partial migrants, also dispersive. Vacates entirely only extreme north of range, and winters chiefly witim breeding range, especially in milder years.
European migrants head chiefly south-west, usually moving only short or medium distances, so birds wintering south of range in Mediterranean region are mostly from central or southern Europe.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. No major changes reported.
In Israel two subspecies E. c. erytrogenys the main form in winter, mainly in mountainous of C and N Israel.
E. c. citrinella a scarce winter visitor in N and C parts.