|י 502) פרוש מצוי|
. בינוני בגודלו ומרשים בצורתו. קודקודו, עורפו וצידי צוארו אפורים
. גרונו וגחונו ערמוניים, חלקי גופו העליונים חומים אפרפרים, על השת ירקרק
. בכנפיו פס וכתם לבן בולטים. שולי אברות הזנב לבנות אף הן
. בתקופת האביב הצבעים בולטים במיוחד
. בית גידולו משתרע על פני אירופה ומשם לקדמת אסיה ומרכזה ולצפון אפריקה
. בית חיותו יערת וחורשים מחטניים, רחבי עלים ומעורבים, שדות, מטעים ופארקים
. בארץ עובר אורח שכיח למדי ומבקר חורף נפוץ במיוחד במרכז וצפון הארץ
Subspecies and Distribution.|
M. c. calandra Canary Is., North Africa and Europe, E to Caucasus area, Asia Minor (except S-E) and coastaal Levant.
F. c. coelebs from Scandinavia, Netherlands, and France E to C Siberia, S to Pyr'en'ees,
mainland Italy, Balkan countries, Greece, European Turkey, and C 48' N in Ukraine and European Russia.
F. c. solomkai Crimea, E shore of Sea of Azov, N-E shore of Black Sea E to about Sukhumi, and N slope of Caucasus.
F. c. caucassica Iranian Azarbaijan, and Asia Minor. F. c. alexnvdrovi N Iran from Gilan to E Mazanderan, in winter in Middle East.
F. c. transcaspia N-E Iran and Turkmenia, in winter in Middle East. F. c. syriaca Levant and Cyprus.
F. c. gengleri Britain and Ireland. F. c. blearica Portugal, Spain, and Balearic Is. F. c. tyrrhenica Corsica. F. c. sarda Sardinia.
F. c. africana Morocco, Algeria, and N-W Tunisia, and N-E Libya. F. c. spodiogenys Tunisia and N-W Libya.
F. c. canariensis (synonym F. c. tintillon) Tenerife, Gran Canaria, and Gomera.
F. c. palmae La Palma. F. c. ombriosa Hierro (Canary Is.) F. c. maderensis Madeira. F. c. moreletti Azores. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
14-15 cm, 16-24 g, wingspan 25-28 cm. Noticeably long, medium-sized, and rather elegant passerine, epitomising its family but actually sharing its general character with only two congeners.
At all ages and in both sexes, plumage pattern dominated by contrasting white panels on leading wing-coverts, buff-white wing-bar on secondaries and inner primaries, and striking white outer tail-feathers which show well on perched bird and twinkle on flying one.
Eurasian male shows more colors than any other west Palearctic finch, with blue-grey crown, pale red to pink face and body, and mainly black ground to white wing and tail markings.
Female and guvenile much more sober, with dusky olive-brown head and upperparts and dusky white underparts showing little pattern. Wings and tail duller than male's but show similarly striking marks.
Song and several calls distinctive. Sexes dissimilar, some seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds in west Palearctic in temperate wooded areas, from Mediterranean and marginally steppe zones up to boreal, and in places to edge of tundra, usually occurs within shifting climatic boundary, beyond which Brambling replaces it to the north.
Basically arboreal, and in breeding season occupies deciduous, mixed, and coniferous woods and forests, at densities varying greatly according to their species composition.
Food and Feeding.
Mainly seeds and other plant material, in breeding season mainly invertebrates. Seeds taken generally on ground, notably freshly-turned soil, not direct from plant, except in shrubs and trees, feeds with rapid pecking action unsuited to removing seeds from herbs or grasses, flower or seed-head simply being knocked away.
Late Apr to mid Jun in Britain, May-Jun in Sweden, Apr to mid Jul in Germany.
Nest site, in fork of tree or bush, on branch or on several thin twigs.
Nest, compact and neat, with firm walls and deep cup, clad with lichen and moss thus looking green or greyish. Pliable and yielding to touch, outer layer of lichen, moss, bark, and fibres bound with spider silk, then grass and stalks lined with rootlets, hair, and feathers.
3-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. Very variable, pale bluish-green to reddish-grey with purple-brown blotches, scrawls, and hair-streaks, concentrated at broad end.
Incubation, 12-16 days, by female only.
Sedentary to migratory, wintering chiefly within breeding range in Europe, but frther S in Asia. In Europe, migrates S-W on fairly narrow front, with western populations progressively further east.
Winter visitors greatly augment populations of W and S Europe, and regularly reach North Africa. Migrates by day in flocks, most actively in morning hours, sometimes in company with Brambling.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. No major changes reported.
In Israel four subspecies:
F. c. coelebs the more common migrant and winter visitor.
F. c. caucasica a scarce winter visitor.
F. c. alexandrovi individuals are scarce winter visitors in N parts.
F. c. transcaspica individuals are rare winter visitors in N parts.