|י 511) צלוב מקור|
. פרוש גדול, מגושם ורועש . מקורו גדול, מצתלב וזנבו מפורץ בצורה ניכרת
. לזכר צבע אדום-ורדרד ואברות כנפיו וזנבו חומות כהות
. הנקבה צהבהבה ירקרקה והכנפים והזנב בצבע חום-אפרפר
בית גידולו משתרע על פני האזור ההולארקטי בצורה לא רציפה בצפון אמריקה
. הצפונית והמרכזית, על פני אירופה כולה, בצפון אסיה ובאזורים מבודדים במרכזה
. בית חיותו יערות מחטניים של אשוחים לעיתים בכפרים וערים
. בארץ מבקר חורף נדיר בצפון ובמרכז מידי פעם נמצא דוגר ביערות הכרמל בקיץ
Subspecies and Distribution.|
L. c. curvirostra Eurasia from Britain to Sea of Okhotsk, S to Cantabrian mountains and Payrenees,
C Italy, N Balkan countries, and European Russia and Siberia, raking into balearica in C and S Spain,
into poliogyba in S Italy and Sicily, into guillemardi in S Balkan countries and Grecce, into altaiensis along N fringe of Altai,
Sayan mountains, S of Lake Baykal, and into japonica from Lake Vaykal to Sea of Japan.
L. c. balearica Balearic Is. L. c. corsicana Corsica. L. c. poliogyna N Africa.
L. c. guillemardi Crimea, Caucasus area, Turkey, and Cyprus.
L. c. tianschanica Tien Shan, Pamirs, Karakorams, and Tarbagatay. L. c. altaiensis Altai, Tuva and Mongolia.
L. c. japonica Japan. L. c. himalyensis Himalayas from E Tibet to Kansu. L. c. meridionalis S Vietnam.
L. c. luzoniensis Luzon (Philippines).
7 further races in N and C America. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
16.5-18 cm, 30-45 g, wingspan 27-30 cm. Large, powerful, somewhat clumsy and noisy finch, with heavy, crossed bill and sharply forked tail, epitome of genus. Male basically orange to red, with dusky wings and tail. Female and immatures grey or olive, juveniles heavily streaked. Plumage shows few features except for paler rump and vent in adult.
Flight strong and bounding, accompanied by distinctive bursts of loud disyllabic calls. Feeds and moves somewhat like small parrot.
Sexes dissimilar, no seasonal variation.
Habitat. In west Palearctic occurs mainly in boreal and subarctic coniferous forests, but also well represented, often by distinct races, in temperate and Mediterranean insular and mountains areas. Extralimitally in Asia ascends to 4500 m, extending to tropical pinewoods.
Ecologically divided largely into pine dwelling populations in more southerly parts of range and spruce-based populations in more northerly, latter being more commonly subject to eruptive movements, during which they may remain to breed, temporarily or for longer, in hitherto unoccupied areas, especially where mature conifer plantations or shelterbelts have recently been developed.
Food and Feeding.
Conifer seeds, generally spruce, but in some parts of range mostly pine, also readily feeds on larch. Very agile and acrobatic forager, easily fluttering from twig to twig, sidling along branches, hanging from cones, and clambering around, often using bill as help like parrot. Either works at cones, usually riper ones, extracting seeds in situ while hanging on cone, or snips them off to carry to perch, often in fork, where held under foot and seeds removed. Often flies to perch carrying cone as heavy as bird itself.
Aug-Apr in britain and Ireland and S Scotland, mid Jan to mid May in Finland, Sep-Dec in Switzerland, Nov-Jun in Morocco.
Nest site, high conifer, usually standing isolated or at woodland edge, generally close to top of tree, covered from above by overhanging twigs.
Nest foundation of dead conifer twigs, strips of deciduous bark, moss, lichen, etc., lined with dry grass, decayed wood, plant down, hair, wool, and sometimes feathers.
3-4 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. Creamy to bluish-white, very sparsely marked with dark purplish specks, spots, and short scrawls, concentrated at broad end, and violet-grey undermarkings.
Incubation,14-15 days, by female only.
Resident and dispersive, also irruptive. In most years, birds disperse short distances in mid summer to find new feeding areas, moving in flocks in various directions but remaining within regular range. Local numbers may therefore fluctuate greatly from year to year, dependent on varying state of conifer seed=-crops, especially spruce, timing of movement coincides with formation of new spruce cones.
In irruption years, birds move much further, mainly in one direction, such movements vary considerably in extent and duration, and tend to begin earlier and end later than in normal years. Irruptions probably result from high population levels coinciding with poor or moderate seed harvests.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Fluctuates widely, depending on conifer seed crop.
In Israel subspecies L. c. curvirostra quite rare winter visitor in N and fewer in C parts. Periodic winter irruptions remaining for summer including some which breed.