|י 517) פצחן|
. פרוש גדול מאוד, מקורו חרוטי וגדול ביותר צבוע בכחול-אפרפר, בחורף-צהוב
, צבעו הכללי חום-ערמוני גרונו שחור ואברות כנפיו כחולות-שחורות
. פס הכנף הלבן בולט במעופו ופס לבן בקצה זנבו
, בית גידולו משתרע מאנגליה ועד יפן למעט רוב סקנדינביה
. וברצועה צרה בצפון-מערב אפריקה
. בית חיותו יערות רחבי-עלים, יערות וחורשים מעורבים מטעים וגנים
. לרוב בצמרות העצים
. בארץ עובר אורח נדיר עד די שכיח בעיקר בחורף, בהרי מרכז וצפון הארץ
Subspecies and Distribution.|
C. c. cocothraustes Eurasia E to Argun valley in W Mongolia, S to Iberia, Sardinia, C Italiy, N Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, plains N Caucasus, grading into nigricans in S Yugoslavia, S Bulgaria, Greece, and N-W Asia Minor.
C. c. niricans Crimea and Caucasus, S through Transcaucasia to N Iran and in E Turky.
C. c. buvryi N-W Africa. C. c. schulpini Amurland and Manchuria E to Sea of Japan.
C. c. japonicus Sakhalin, S Kuril Is., C and S K amchatka, and Japan.
C. c. humii isolated in C Asia from E Afhanistan through Pamir-Alay to Tien Shan. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
16-18 cm, 40-60 g, wingspan 29-33 cm. Very large, huge-bill, big-headed, short-tailed, short-legged finch, bigger than all other common finches of temperate woodlands. Adult plumage warm buff, with bill blue-grey in breeding season, yellow in winter, emphasized by black lore and bib, grey nape, brown back, black flight-feathers boldly panelled white on larger coverts and across primaries, and white-tipped tail.
Sexes dissimilar at close range, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breed in west Palearctic in lowland and hilly temperate zone, and parts of boreal, Mediterranean, and steppe zones, continental and to lesser extent oceanic. Most characteristically a specialist bird of natural open mixed oak and hornbeam forest, but extends freely to most other tall deciduous trees which carry large fruits within handling capacity of massive bill, especially beech, ash, wych elm, and sycamore or maple.
Accordingly mainly found in crowns and forest canopy, liking to perch on topmost twigs.
Food and Feeding.
Large hard seeds, buds, and shoots of trees and shrubs, invertebrates, especially caterpillars, in breeding season. In spring and summer, forages mainly in woodland trees, in autumn and winter, in hedges and on ground.
1st half of Apr to end of Jul in Britain, laying begins last Apr or early May in USSR, Mar-Apr in Greece, Italy and Spain, end Mar to end May in N Africa.
Nest site, prefers old, shrubby trees, especially oak and fruit trees.
Nest, bulky foundation of dry twigs, distinct from 2nd layer of thin twiglets and blades of grass in which cup with soft plant matter is shaped. Cup shallow, composed of roots and strong grass, twigs, dry moss, and lichen.
4-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, occasionally pyriform, smooth and slightly glossy or non-glossy. Light blue or greyish-green, rarely pale buff or grey, sparsely, but usually fairly evenly marked with bold spots and scrawls and paler scribbling of blackish-brown, sometimes concentrated towards broad end.
Incubation 11-13 days, by female only.
Sedentary to migratory, northern populations migrate more than southern ones.
Juveniles migrate more than adults, and females more than males. Migration mostly diurnal, but nocturnal aslo reported.
European migrants head between W and S, wintering chiefly within breeding range, numbers fluctuate markedly from year to year. Makes local feeding movements in wide variety of directions. Longer movements are probably also associated primarily with food availability.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has recently increased in Scandinavia and adjacent Russia.
In Israel two subspecies
C. c. ocothraustes most winter visitors are of this subspecies.
C. c. nigricans individuals appear in smaller numbers than previous subspecies.