|י 503) פרוש הרים|
ראשו ועורפו שחורים, שתו הלבן בולט במעופו, והחזה ערמוני-כתום
. מבדילים אותו מהפרוש המצוי. הזנב שחור
. ראשו ועורפו בחורף מחליפים את צבעם לחומים-אפוורים כשל הנקבה
, בית גידולו משתרע על פני צפון אירופה, מזרחה לכיון הטיגה האסיאתית
. חורף במערב אירופה ובמזרח הים התיכון
. בית חיותו שטחים פתוחים עם עצי ליבנה או מחטניים פזורים
. בארץ עובר אורח נדיר, מבקר חורף שכיח למדי בכל חלקי הארץ במיוחד בצפון ובמרכז
Subspecies and Distribution.|
Fringilla montifringilla North Palarctic. Winters C and S Palarctic, S to Mediterranean basin and N Africa. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
14 cm, 22-27 g, wingspan 25-26 cm. Medium-sized, elegant finch, with general character and behaviour of Chaffinch and rather similar basic plumage pattern but different, less varied colors in male.
Both sexes show diagnostic combination of long, oval white rump and almost completely black tail. Male distinguished in breeding season by glossy black head and mantle, bordered by orange blaze from breast across shoulder and below back. In winter by black-speckled face and crown and black-splashed mantle.
Female and juvenile distinguished by mottled dark brown head, with broad buff supercilium and grey sides to neck.
Sexes dissimilar, marked seasonal variation in male.
Habitat. Breeds across boreal and subarctic zones of west Palearctic. Owing to northerly range and arboreal requirements does not extend much up mountains, but is common on uplands in the more open birch woods, and in mixed forests of birch and conifers. Sometimes ranges beyond into lower growth of juniper, willow, or alder. Tall and dense stands in forest appear to be less favoured than open growth with clearings. Also found in riverine belts of willows.
Food and Feeding.
Diet based on seeds, berries, and invertebrates, especially Lepidoptera and beetles. In winter quarters specializes in beechnuts. On breeding grounds feeds mainly in trees, but other times mostly on ground, commonly in flocks.
Mid May to mid Jun in Finland, laying starts 2nd half of May in S, Jul in N Norway, late May to end of Jun in N-W RussIa, Jun -Jul in Scotland.
Nest site, high in tree, often against trunk of conifer or in fork of deciduous tree.
Nest, similar to that of Chaffinch but larger and more loosely built. Outer structure of moss, lichen, grass, heather, strips or juniper bark, and cobwebs, lined with feathers, moss, plant down, soft grass, hair, fur, and sometimes paper, string, etc.
3-8 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth an glossy. Very like those of Chaffinch, but greener, and with same wide variation, from clear light blue to dark olive-brown, with sparse to dense pink to rusty spots and blotches, and sometimes fine hair-streaks.
Incubation, 11-12 days, by female only.
All populations migratory, wintering almost entirely S of breeding range. European birds head between west and south, chiefly S-W. Extent of movement is strongly dependent on food availability. Local numbers wintering fluctuate greatly, and concentrations of millions of birds occur, especially in S-C Europe.
Ringing data give evidence of winter site-fidelity, but also of individuals wintering in widely differing areas in different years.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Marked annual fluctuations associated with changes in breeding distribution, and data inadequate to separate one from the other.
In Israel subspecies Fringilla montifringilla scarce passage migrant and quite common winter visitor in all Israel, especially N and C parts.