|י 505) בזבוז אירופי|
. הקטן בפרושי אירופה, כנפיו ארוכות יחסית וזנבו מפורץ בצורה בולטת
. צבעו הכללי ירוק-אפרפר, ראשו וחזהו צהבהבים ושתו צהוב. גבו וצידי גופו מפוספסים
. בית גידולו משתרע באגן ים התיכון, מהמאה ה19 התחיל להתפשט לכיוון צפון אירופה
. בית חיותו שולי יערות וחורשים, מטעים, גנים ופארקים עירוניים ואף בפרברי ערים
. בארץ עובר אורח שכיח ומבקר חורף מצוי ביותר מצפון הנגב ועד לצפון הארץ
. נדיר בשאר הנגב והערבה ועד אילת
Subspecies and Distribution.|
Serinus serinus C Europe, and Mediterranean countries. Winters in S of range. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
11-12 cm, 8-11 g, wingspan 20-23 cm. Smaller than other west Palearctic serins but with proportionately long wings and deeply forked tail. Diminutive, stubby-billed, rather compact finch, epitome of genus.
Adult has rather green, streaked upperparts with bright yellow rump. Male brilliantly yellow on forehead, face, throat, and breast. Female only dull yellow on face.
Voice distinctive. Sexes dissimilar, no seasonal variation.
Habitat. Confined to west Palearctic, originally in Mediterranean zone, spreading north in 19h century into temperate drier and warmer regions of C Europe, and continuing in 20h century to fringe of boreal and steppe zones, and sparsely toward oceanic margins. Vulnerable to cold wet weather and unable to cope with more northerly winters, or with higher altitudes except in S of range, where ascends to subalpine zone.
Among trees and shrubs seems most at home in conifers, including various exotic forms. Shows marked preference for mosaic patterns of vegetation of diverse heights, spacing, and composition, avoiding dense or uniform examples, or large blocks.
Food and Feeding.
Seeds and other plant material, occasionally small invertebrates. forages principally on herbs and on ground.
Tree-foraging probably mainly in spring. Especially in winter, forages in large flocks, often with other seed-eaters. Feeds energetically and with agility like Linnet or Siskin.
Nest building 2nd half of May in Estonia, mid Apr-Jul in Germany, early May to Jul in France, mid Mar to mid Apr in Spain, from Feb in N Africa.
Nest site, generally in conifer rather than broad-leaved tree, though also in bush, also commonly in fruit trees.
Nest, small and compact, of fine twigs, stalks, sometimes strips of bark, roots, grass, moss, or lichen, lined neatly and thickly with rootlets, hair, feathers, plant down, etc.
2-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. Pale bluish-white, sometimes greensh-white, sparsely spotted and streaked rusty and purplish, mostly at broad end, sometimes forming circle.
Incubation, 11-13 days by female only.
Sedentary to migratory, wintering within and south of breeding range. Most birds vacate northern parts of range, but winter records show that small numbers remain, at least in some years. In center and south of range, amount of movement masked by passage and arrivals from further north, but observations and ringing data show that even in Mediterranean countries a considerable number are migrants, contrary to earlier assumptions.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has increased with northward range expansion, but some evidence of recent decline.
In Israel subspecies Serinus serinus Common passage migrant and abundant winter visitor in N and C parts, and into N Negev, rare in rest of Negev and Arava, including Eilat.