|י 507) ירקון|
. בינוני בגודלו, חסון ומקורו כבד וחרוטי
הזכר ירוק -זיתי עם כתמים צהובים
. ונראה מבריק באור השמש. הזנב כדוד בצורה בולטת
. הנקבה חומה-אפרפרה ודהה יותר
. בית גידולו משתרע על פני אירופה, אזור ים התיכון והאזור האירנו-טורני
בית חיותו שולי חורשים ויערות, שדות עם עצים ושיחים, מטעים, כרמים ופרדסים
. ובשאר המקומות בהם הוא יכול למצוא את מזונותיו - זרעים וחרקים
. בארץ יציב ומצוי ביותר במרכז וצפון הארץ. עובר אורח וחורף מצוי ביותר
... אמר רב יהודה צרדא שרי ... חולין סב, ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.|
C. c. chloris N Europe from Belgium, Netherlands, and Scandinavia E to Urals,
south through Rhein valley to N slope of Alps, Hungary, and Ukraine and European Russia
C. c. harrisoni S Scotland, England, Wales, and Ireland.
C. c. aurantiventris France (in E grading into nominate), C and E Spain, Balearic Is, N Tunisia, Sicily,
mainland Italy, coastal Yugoslavia, Albania, and W Greece.
C. c. vanmarli N-W Spain, Portugal, and N-W Morocco. C. c. voousi Atlas mountains of Morocco and Algeria.
C. c. madaraszi Corsica and Sardinia. C. c. muehlei E Yugoslavia (grading into nominate), Rumania, bulgaria, Greece, Crete, Cyprus, and W Asia Minor.
C. c. chlorotica Levant and N Egypt, (grading into muehlei in S-C Turkey) C. c. bilkevitchi Caucasus, Transcaucasia, N Iran, and S-W Turkmenia.
C. c. turkestanicus C Asia from Samarkand, and Kzyl-Orda E through Alay and Kirgiz range. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
14-15 cm, 20-24 g, wingspan 24-27 cm. Medium-sized, robust, plump and noticeably short-tailed finch, with stout conical bill.
Male olive-green and yellow, looking bright only in sunlight. Female dull olive-brown and yellowish-buff, faintly streaked on back. Juvenile dirty buff-brown and pale buff, fully but not sharply streaked.
All show striking yellow patches on primaries and side of tail, shining on Male, duller on female, and duller on juvenile.
Large bill pale flesh. Voice distinctive. Sexes dissimilar, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds almost throughout Europe, to south of Arctic Circle or July isotherm of 14'C in boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and steppe zones, extending also to North Africa and W Africa.
Attached to tall densely leafed trees and to diet of seeds accessible under appropriate trees, on bushes, or on crop, weed, and other plants in fields. Has expanded from natural woodland edge, scrub, stream banks, and groups of trees on grassland to tall hedgerows, lines of planted trees, orchards, conifer plantations, parks, large gardens, and other situations where tall trees, sunny aspects, and ready access of seeds, fruits, and insect food are present together in breeding season.
Food and Feeding.
Fairly large seeds, mainly of Carduelinae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Compositae, and cereals, also of many trees and shrubs. A few invertebrates taken in breeding season and also fed to young.
Eats a wider range ofseeds than probably any other Carduelinae in west Palearctic.
Late Apr to mid Aug in Britain, late Apr to early Jul in Finland, mid Mar to late Jul in Germany, late Mar to early Aug in Spain.
Nest site, against trunk or in strong fork of dense bush, small tree, or creeper. Conifers or other evergreens slightly preferred, especially early inseason.
Nest, stout, robust sturcture with foundation of dry twigs, grass, moss, and lichen lined with fine grasses, rootlets, plant down, hair, feathers, or man-made material.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. Greyish-white to bluish-white, or beige, sparsely spotted and blotched reddish, purplish, or blackish, concentrated at broad end occasionally forming ring.
Incubation, 11-15 days, by female only.
Partially migratory in most of range, some southern populations apparently resident and dispersive. Diurnal migrant.
Birds head chiefly S-W to winter almost entirely within breeding range, with concentrations in Mediterranean region. Western populations winter furthest W, and more E populations progressively further E.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has increased in Fenno-Scandia, and in other areas of range expansion.
In Israel three subspecies.
C. c. chlorotica resident, and commonest on passage and in winter.