|י 508) חוחית|
. אחת הציפורים הססגוניות בארץ. ראשה שחור ולבן ופניה אדומים
. בכנפיה פסי כנף צהובים, שתה לבנבן ועל זנבה השחור כתמים לבנים
. ניכרת בקולה ומעופה הדלגני
, בית גידולה משתרע בכל רחבי אירופה מלבד צפונה
במזרח מתפשטת לאזור האירנו-טורני ועד למרכז אסיה
. ובדרום לצפון אפריקה
. בית חיותה שולי חורשים ויערת מטעים ופרקים
חיבתה המיוחדת לזרעי קוצים וצמחים ממשפחת המורכבים
והורדיים הקנו לה את שמה חוחית
. בארץ יציבה ומצויה ביותר במרכז וצפון הארץ
. חודרת במספר מקומות לנגב והערבה
. עוברת אורח ומבקרת חורף מצויה
Subspecies and Distribution.|
C. c. bretannica Britain, Ireland, W and N-W France, and coastal zone of Belgium and Netherlands.
C. c. carduelis from Eenmark, E Netherlands and Belgium, and Central France E through Europe to
C Urals, S to mainland Italy, N Yugoslavia, N-W Rumania, northern Ukraine, and C European Russia.
C. c. parva S France, Iberia, Balearic Is., Azores, Madeira, Canary Is., and N Africa from Morocco to Cyrenaica.
C. c. tschussi Corsica, Sardinia, Elba, and Sicily.
C. c. balcanica Yugoslavia and S Rumania to Crete and European Turkey.
C. c. niedecki E Sporades, Rhodes, and Karpathos, Asia Minor , N Iraq, Transcaucasia
N to S slope of Caucasus, Zagros mountains S to Shiraz, Cyprus, levant, and Egypt.
C. c. loudoni (synonym: brevirostris) N Iran from Azarbaijan to Gorgan an E Turkey.
C. c. colchicus S-W slope of Caucasus, E to above Gagra, N slope of Caucasus and Crimea.
C. c. volgensis S Ukraine, N-E Rumania, and S-E European Russia, Sto plains N of Caucasus
C. c. frigoris (synonym: major) W and C Siberia E and S to Yenisey, W Altai, Zaysan basin, and N Kazakhstan.
In winter to S-E European Russia, Transcaspia, and perhaps Middle East.
C. c. ultima S-E Fars and Kerman, S Iran.
C. c. paropanisi N-E Iran and N Afghanista East through Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, and Tien Shan, S-E Kazakhstan.
C. c. subalata S-C Siberia from C and S Altai through W Mongolia and Tuva to Angara and Lake Baykal.
C. c. caniceps W Pakistan N to Himalayas, E to C Nepal. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
12-14 cm, 11-17 g, wingspan 21-25 cm. Small, delicate, beautifully marked finch, with noticeably pointed bill and light dancing flight. At all ages, displays diagnostic shining, golden-yellow panel along center of black wing. Adult has unique head pattern of seemingly vertical bands of red-white-black and has tawny-brown back contrasting with wings, bold whitish rump, and black tail.
Voice distinctive. Sexes closely similar, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds over west Palearctic north to isotherms of 17'C in boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and steppe zones, both Atlantic and continental.
Predominantly in lowlands, but in Switzerland breeds generally up to 1000 m, and occurs in late summer and autumn up to 2400 m, resorting to alpine meadows and areas near chalets. In breeding season, shows preference for orchards, parks, gardens, avenues, and tree nurseries, often in or near human settlements, and especially where patches of tall weeds and other concentrated food sources are present. Also favours streamside of fen woodlands, open or fringe woodlands and heath lands, and commons with well-grown hawthorn, gorse, and other scrub or thicket species.
Food and Feeding.
Small seeds, mainly Compositae. In breeding season, also small numbers of invertebrates. Prefers seeds in milky, half-ripe state, so changes food plants constantly over year, and continually on move from one patch of suitable species to another, which can be several km away, sometimes following the same route every day.
Generally takes seeds directly from flower or seed-head on plant, mostly on herbs, rarely grasses, in wasteland, open countryside, copses, etc., less often in parks or gardens. In winter regularly in trees, principally alder and pine.
Laet May to mid Jul in Bretain, 1st half of May to early July in Finland, end of may to mid Jun in Germany, Apr-May in N Africa, May-Jun in Azores.
Nest site, Well hidden in inaccessible outermost twigs of tree, and cover seems more important than support.
Nest, very neat and compact cup of moss, roots, grass, and spider silk, which sometimes binds foundation to twigs, thickly lined with plant down, wool, hair, and occasionally feathers.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. Very pale bluish-white, sparsely spotted or scrawled reddish or purplish-brown, concentrated at broad end sometimes in faint ring.
Incubation, 9-14 days by female only.
Partially migratory, wintering almost entirely within breeding range, with concentrations in Mediterranean region Areas of higher ground are vacated. Migrates by day in flocks. Western European migrants head mostly S-W or SSW on narrow front. East European birds range more widely, between W and S-E. Some Mediterranean populations perhaps sedentary.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Introduced in New Zealand, southern Australia, Bermuda, and very locally in South America.
In Israel two subspecies.
C. c. niediecki abundant resident, and the main form visiting in winter.
C. c. carduelis scarce winter visitor.