|י 509) חורפי|
. קטן, גוץ, הדור למראה, בעל זנב מקודד בצורה ניכרת
. צבעו הכללי ירקרק-צהבהב ומפוספס בפסים כהים
. סנטרו וקודקודו שחורים. הנקבה חומה יותר ואף היא מפוספסת
. בית גידולו משתרע על פני מרבית אירופה וחודר למרכז אסיה
, בית חיותו משפלות ועד ליערות הרריים, בינות לעצי מחט וחורשים מעורבים
. בעיקר בעצים קשישים וגדולים
. בארץ עובר אורח וחורף, נדיר עד מצוי ביותר ברוב חלקי הארץ במיוחד במרכזה וצפונה
Subspecies and Distribution.|
Carduelis spinus West Palearctic to Mediterranean, E across parts of Asia. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
11-12 cm, 10-13 g, wingspan 20-23 cm. Small quite tubby but elegant finch with short but noticeably forked tail, tit-like behaviour and yellow-green and streaked plumages. At all ages, shows fine bill and striking combination of yellow band on wing and yellow basal patches on tail.
Male strikingly yellow and geen, with diagnostic black crown, much black in wings and tail, emphasizing yellow marks, and greenish-yellow rump. Female more greenish, distinctly streaked above and below, especially from sides of breast to rear flanks.
Flight light and dancing. Voice distinctive. Sexes dissimilar, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. In west Palearctic, breeds in both lowland and mountain forst, coniferous or mixed, mainly in boreal and temperate zones. Mainly occupies spruce but also fir and pine. especially wher these are well-grown and well-spaced, and sometimes mixed with broad-leaved trees. Streamside locations are often preferred, especially outside breeding season where much foraging is in alders and birches along watercourses.
Food and Feeding.
Seeds, especially of conifers - Coniferae, (particularly spruce), alder, birch and herbs, some invertebrates in breeding season. Of herbs, favours Compositae, Polygonaceae, and Corylaceae.
Usually in Apr in Scotland, Mar in Ireland, May-Jun in Finland, mid Mar in Norway late Feb in Switzerland.
Nest site, generally inaccessible, at considerable height and in outer hanging twigs of conifer, usually spruce.
Nest, small hemispherical onstruction of conifer twigs, heather, grass, moss, bark fibres, and spider's web lined with hair, fur, rootlets, plant down, and sometimes feathers, often with external camouflaging of moss and lichen.
3-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. Rather variable in color, size, and shape: pale bluish-white or blue sparsely marked with purplish to blackish-brown spots and scrawls, mostly at broad end.
Incubation, 10-14 days, by female only.
Mostly migratory in northern breeding areas, but some southern populations may be resident. Many birds winter in different areas in different years but some are faithful to some area, even exactly the same site.
Most are nomadic during winter, but minority becomes resident at same site for several months. Numbers migrating vary greatly from year to year, and more distant movements are recorded when large numbers of birds involved.
Availability of seed crops on favoured trees (alder, birch) seems to be major determinant of strength of movement away from breeding area.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has increased in parts of western Europe, following spread of conifer plantations.
In Israel subspecies Carduelis spinus rare to abundant passage migrant and winter visitor over much of the country. mainly in N and C.