|י 510) תפוחית מצויה|
. ניכרת בפס כנף לבן הבולט גם בעמידתה. צבעה הכללי חום-ערמוני
. הראש אפור בקיץ החזה והמצח של הזכר מאדימים
. הנקבה דומה לזכר מבלי להאדים ויותר מפוספסת
, בית גידולה משתרע בצורה מקוטעת באירופה-סיביריה
. באזורי הים התיכון והאירנו-טורני
. בית חיותה בסוגי אקלים שונים מפני הים ועד לשדות יבשים ברום של 2300 מ'
. בנופים גלויים או בעלי עצים נמוכים, שולי יערות, שדות אברש מטעים וגנים
, בארץ יציבה שכיחה בכל האזורים ההרריים של מרכז וצפון הארץ
. עוברת אורח וחורפת שכיחה ביותר
Subspecies and Distribution.|
C . c. cannabina Europe and W Siberia, W to Ireland, Wales, and England, S to Pyrenees, N Italy, N Yugoslavia, Rumania, Ugraine, and N Kazakhstan.
C . c. autochthona Scotland. C . c. guentheri (synonym nana) Madeira. C . c. meadewaldoi W Canary Is.
C . c. mediterranea Iberia, Balearic Is., Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, S Italy, coastal and S Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Greece.
Race unknown, N-W Africa from Morocco to Tunisia and Libya?
C . c. bella Crimea, Turkey, and Levant E through Caucasus area and N Iraq to Iran and S-W Turkmenia, also C Asia from Afghanistan to S-W Altai. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
13-14 cm, 15-21 g, wingspan 21-25.5 cm. Small, quit compact, sociable but nervous finch, epitome of smaller, streaked members of Carduelis .
Except in male, rather featureless plumage essentially brown above and pale buff-brown below, marked mainly by white edges to primaries and tail-feathers, quite heavy streaks on back and underparts, and paler eye-crescents and throat markings. Male in worn plumage becomes colorful, with pale crimson forecrown and gry head, crimson chest and flanks, almost chestnut mantle, scapulars, and wing coverts, and white fringes to upper tail-coverts, as well as white wing and tail edges.
Female greyer headed than juvenile. Bill at all times grey or dull horn, never straw in winter. Flight somewhat sparrow-like. Voice distinctive.
Habitat. In west Palearctic, breeds almost throughout European boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and steppe climatic zones, extending to coastal North Africa and SW Asia, in both continental and, to lesser extent, Atlantic climates.
Mainly a lowland bird, but also widespread in suitable hilly regions, and in Alps nests up to 2000-2300 m on dry moors, alpine meadows, or scree where dwarf conifers or rough vegetation flourish. Generally avoids dense tall forests and woods except those of open type with clearings or glades and ready access to stands of seed-bearing ruderal or similar plants. Occupies fen woodlands but prefers scrub and heath vegetation with dry sunny aspect, farmland with hedges or low trees, vineyards, orchards, maquis, fields left uncultivated, and untended forest edges.
Food and Feeding.
Seeds, probably takes fewer invertebrates than any other west Palearctic finch apart from crossbills or Twite, although importance in nestling diet unclear.
In winter, forms large mixed flocks with other seed-eaters in open country, feeding much more on ground than in summer, though tends to remain together in groups within such flocks. Also forages in groups in breeding season when food abundant.
Mar to mid Jun in England, late Apr to early May in W France, Apr-Aug in N-W Russia, late Mar mostly Apr in N Africa.
Nest site, very low in dense, often thorny tree, bush, scrub, or hedge, or on ground, frequently in young conifer plantation. Evergreens commonly preferred early in season for 1st broods, later nests more often in deciduous trees and bushes cover thick, though conifers especially can be preferred all season.
Nest, foundation of small twigs, roots, stalks, and moss lined with hair, wool, plant down, sometimes feathers, paper, etc.
3-7 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth, and non-glossy, very variable in shape and color. Pale to whitish-blue, sometimes light grey, with distinct spots, speckles, and streaks of pink, purple, or purplish-brown, also larger blotches of various shades of red to blackish-purple. Markings mostly at broad end.
Incubation, 11-13 days, by female only.
Partially migratory, most birds moving S-W or SSW on narrow front to winter within and slightly south of breeding range, with concentrations in Mediterranean region. Areas of higher ground are vacated . Diurnal migrant.
Atlantic island races sedentary, and probably also some populations of Medeterranean race mediterranea , Malta, Sicily.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. No major changes except in north, where range limit affected by varying severity of winters.
In Israel two subspecies
C. c. bella resident in all mountainous Mediterranean clicates, also the more frequent form on passage and winter throughout the country