|י 519) דרור הבית|
. הציפור השכיחה ביותר בקרבת מגורי אדם
. לזכר קודקוד ושת אפורים, גבו ערמוני ומפוספס בשחור
. הגחון בהיר ועל כנפו פס לבן בולט
. הנקבה חומה דהויה ללא סימנים מיוחדים פרט לפס הכנף
, בית גידולו משתרע על פני רוב הממלכה הפליארקטית למעט איסלנד
. על פני הממלכה האוריינטלית, משם התפשט, ובצפון מזרח אפריקה
. בעזרת האדם הדרור התפשט על פני אמריקה, דרום אפריקה אוסטרליה ואיי אוקייניה
. בית חיותו ליד ובין מגורי אדם
. בארץ יציב ומצוי בהמוניו בכל רחבי הארץ
... ודרור קן לה ...תהילים פ"ד 4
Subspecies and Distribution.|
P. d. domesticus N Eurasia from Britain and Scandinavia E to Sea of Okhotsk, S to W and N France, Alps, Hungary, N Rumania,
Ukraine, Crimea, N-E Turkey, W Transcaucasia, N slope of C and E Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Tien Shan, and N Mongolia.
P. d. balearoibericus Mediterranean France, Spain, Balearic Is., Balkans from Yugoslavia and S and E Rumania to Greece, and W and C part of Asia Minor.
P. d. tingitanus Maghreb countries and N-E Libya. P. d. biblicus Cyprus, and from Levant E to W Iran, N to S-E Turkey,
merging into indicus in Negev and Arava valley (Israel and Jordan), merging into hyrcanus in Talysh area and into persicus in W Iran.
P. d. hyrcanus N Iran, Nof Elburz mountains. P. d. persicusIran, S and E of hyrcanus, E of biblicus, E to S-W Afghanistan.
P. d. niloticus Egypt, merging into biblicus in N Sinai and into rufidorsalis in Nile valley.
P. d. indicus Eilat, Arabia, S Afghanistan, and Indian peninsula, S of Himalayas, E to Burma, S to Sri Lanka.
P. d. rufidorsalis Nile valley of Sudan. P. d. hufufae N-E Arabia to N Oman.
P. d. bactrianus Transcaspia and E Afghanistan and N-WPakistan. P. d. parkini Himalayas from Pakistan to Nepal.
Has become established and spread, with man's assistance, on almost all continents and manyoceanic islands. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
14-16 cm, 23-31 g, wingspan 21-25 cm. Heavy-billed, rather large-headed, robust passerine, suggesting tubby finch but differing in broader wings and square-ended tail. Epitome of genus.
Male boldly patterned, warm brown above, with mainly grey crown and black eye-stripe and bib contrasting with dull white cheeks, dark streaks over back, two wing-bars, grey rump, and greyish underparts.
Female rather featureless, dull brown with indistinct pale supercilium and two wing-bars.
Flight often fast and direct, with more whirring action than finches. Sexes dissimilar, seasonal variation only by wear in male.
Habitat. Greatly affected by enormous spread of range within recent historical time, changing breeding habits and diet, and close and flexible association with man. Thus liable only to limited interspecific competition, though in parts of range competes with Tree Sparrow and Spanish Sparrow which show similar but much more limited tendencies.
In west Palearctic, has spread in recent times and is now established throughout except in Iceland, some small Atlantic Is., the more arid tracts on North Africa, and high Arctic fringe. Avoids closed or dense vegetation, from forests to plantations, large thickets, reedbeds, and some high-density built-up areas, especially where structures are tall and lacking in ledges and vegetation.
Food and Feeding.
Mainly plant material, though nestlings largely fed animal material during first half of nestling period, and some animal material taken by adlts immediately prior to and during breeding Vegetable food principally seeds, but shoots, season.
buds, and berries taken to lesser extent. Birds living in urban and suburban areas take wide range of household scraps, elsewhere exploit food put out for domestic animals.
Forages mainly on low plants or seeds on ground, though commonly perches on ripening cereal head, frequently breaking stems.
Apr-Aug in Europe, but Mar in Azores and May in Finland, early Apr to late Jun in Egypt, Mar-Jun in Israel, Apr to mid Aug in Iraq.
Net site, usually in hole: in buildings and other man-made structures, and free-standing in branches of tree.
Nest, free-standing nest is large, domed, roughly globular structure, with entrance at side, loosely woven of dried grass or straw. Cup lined with feathers, hair, or other soft material, especially tree bast.
3-5 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and only slightly glossy. White or faintly tinted greenish or greyish, very variably marked with spots, speckling, or small blotches of grey, blue-grey, greenish-grey, purplish-grey, black, or purplish-brown.
Incubation, 11-14 days, by both sexes.
Most races sedentary, especially in W of range. Juveniles disperse locally from natal area, but once settled remain within a few km. A small proportion, mainly juveniles, makes more directed migration, mainly to south and S-W but usually limited in extent. Larger-scale movements occur sporadically, mainly involving northern populations.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has spread on almost all continents
In Israel three subspecies
P. d. biblicus breeds throughout Mediterranean and Semi-desert climates of N and C and parts of Negev.
P. d. niloticusbreed locally in Sinai into Eilat, southern Ngev.
P. d. indicus individuals of this form breed at Eilat and S Arava.