|י 520) דרור ספרדי|
הזכר שונה מזכר דרור הבית בקודקודו הערמוני, לחייו הלבנות, בחזהו השחור
. ובפספוס השחור של צידי גופו וגבו. הנקבות דומות לנקבות דרור הבית
. בית גידולו באזור ים התיכון והאירנו-טורני
. בית חיותו שיחים וסבכי שיחים, ליד אפיקי מים זורמים כרמים , מטעים וחורשים
. לעיתים על הרים עד לרום של 2300 מ
. בארץ יציב ומבקר קיץ בהמוניו ברוב חלקי הארץ
.. ודרור קן לה ...תהילים פ"ד
Subspecies and Distribution.|
P. h. hispaniolensis Canary Is., N Africa from Morocco to N-W Libya, Iberia, Sardinia, Balkan countries, and Greece.
Grading into next race on Cyprus, and in Turkey, Levant, Caucasus area, and N-W Iran.
P. h. transcaspicus Iran and Transcaspia E to E Kazakhstan and Afhanistan. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
14-15 cm, 24-32 g, wingspan 23-26 cm. Rather large handsome sparrow differing distinctly from Hous Sparrow in male's dark chestnut crown, whiter cheeks, and black-splashed chest, flanks, and back, and more streaked appearance, particularly on flanks of female and juvenile.
Commonest call distincctive. Sexes dissimilar, seasonal variation only by wear in male.
Habitat. Confined to narrow lower middle latitudes, largely Mediterranean but extending east into W-C Asia in steppe and semi-desert valleys, sometimes ascending foothills and locally breeding in mountains up to 2300 m.
Typically, however, a warm lowland moisture-loving species inhabiting trees, shrubs, thickets, and reedbeds along riversides or irrigation ditches, groves of olives, date palms, and eucalyptus, and even glades in woods and forests, where nests are often built in foundations of nests of storks and eagles.
Food and Feeding.
Plant material and invertebrates. Plant material taken from low herbs or ground, but cereal seeds taken from ripening heads of grain at 'milk' stage, also buds and fruit from frees. Invertebrates taken mainly from ground, but also by searching leaves of bushes and trees, by fluttering in front of leaves and by catching insects in flight.
Laying begins in March in N Africa, mid Mar in Canary Is., 1st week Mar in Libya, mid Apr in Caucasus, Oct-Nov in Malta.
Nest site, very large variety of sites used. Free-standing nests in trees, resting on branch forks, are most common. Nests commonly built into foundations of nests of large birds, including birds of prey, White Stork and crows, at times in company with House Sparrow.
Nest, free-standing, large, untidy, roughly spherical, domed structure with entrance-hole on side. Normally constructed of dry grass or straw and thin twigs, but sometimes fresh green vegetation. Leafy sprigs from trees and flower panicles sometimes incorporated. Nest-cup a more compact structure of fine grass, plant down, feathers, and animal hair.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. White or faintly tinted blue or green, marked with specks, spots, or small blotches in various shades of grey, violet-grey, blackish-violet, or purplish, often with darker markings concentrated at large end.
Incubation, 11-12 days, by both sexes, but more by female.
Pattern very complex. some southern populations mainly sedentary, but others partially migratory. Populations in N-W Africa both migratory and nomadic.
Eastern populations show more regular migratory behaviour, in some areas moving further north for successive breeding attempts.
Winters in Spain, N Africa, Middle East, C Asia, N Pakistan, and N-W India.
Populations in Cape Verde Is., Canary Is., Madeira, and Malta sedentary. Some of population breeding C Iberia moves to S coast of Spain and possibly across to Morocco.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has clearly increased in areas of range expansion.
In Israel two subspecies
P. h. transcaspicus resident, and breeding summer visitor, also the more common of the two subspecies as winter visitor and passage migrant.