|י 522) דרור הרים|
. דרור די גדול אבל קטן במקצת מדרור הבית, הזוויגים דומים
. הקודקוד ערמוני, הסינר קטן משל דרור ספרדי
. ליד האוזן כתמים שחורים והשת חום-צהבהב
, בית גידולו משתרע על פני רוב אירופה למעט סקנדינביה
. בחלק מאוקיניה ובצורה מקומית בארצות הברית
. בית חיותו חורשים דלילי עצים ובקרבת מגורי אדם
. בארץ עובר אורח נדיר ביותר
... ודרור קן לה ... תהילים פ"ד 4
Subspecies and Distribution.|
P. m. montanus Europe and Siberia from Norway, Ireland, and Porugal E to Altai, N Mongolia,
N-W Manchuria, and Sea of Okhotsk, S in W to spain, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, and Greece, and in E
European Russia and Sberia, grading into transcaucasicus in E Bulgaria, E Rumania, Crimea, and in European Turkey.
P. m. transcaucasicus Turkey E from Istanbul, and Caucasus area E to Gorgan in N Iran and N to valley of lower Volga.
P. m. dilutus Transcaspia E through W Pakistan, Shan, and Zaysan basin to Gobi desert.
P. m. dybowskii E Asia from lower Amur river S to N Korea, W in Manchuria to
Great Khingan mountains, grading into saturatus on Sachalin and C Korea.
P. m. kansuensis Zaidam basin and northern Kansu (China). P. m. tibetanus S and E Tibet.
P. m. iubilaeus E China from Peking area S to lower Yangtxe river, W to Shansi.
P. m. obscuratus Nepal, Sikkim, N-E India and neighbouring Burma, and in S-W China.
P. m. saturatus S Kuril Is., Japan, S Korea, and through Ryu Kyu Is. to Taiwan and S-E China.
P. m. malaccinsis S-E Asia from Haina, Vietnam, and C Burma S to W Indonesia.
Varios races introduced in N America, Australia, E Indonesia, Philippines, and elswhere. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
14 c, 23 g, wingspan 20-22 cm. Quite large but always tidy-looking sparrow with dashing, direct flight even more pronounced than in House Aparrow. Sexes alike, both adult and guvenile have diagnostic combination of black-spotted white cheeks, long white collar emphasizing head, and two pale wing-bars.
Habitat. In west Palearctic, breeds in middle and higher latitudes , mainly in continental but also marginally in oceanic climates, preferring temperate to warm Mediterranean or high boreal regimes, in which House Sparrow appears to hold an advantage.
Despite scientific name normally a lowland or low upland bird. Within above range, occupies suitable habitats only patchily and desertions of settled areas. Acceptable habitats, from oceanic to continental, appear to fit series of distinct types: coastal cliffs, especially with ivy, other coastlines, especially with empty or ruined buildings, pollarded willows and other trees with nest-holes along slow-flowing lowland watercourses.
Food and Feeding.
Plant and animal material, proportions varying with both season and availability. Seeds comprise bulk of plant matter, with fewer buds and berries. Food predominantly sought on ground. Takes seeds from low growing plants, both by flying up and perching, on cereal stems, or by pulling seed-head to ground in case of weaker plants, and stripping off seed-head.
Searches for seeds on ground, where birds gather in flocks, often with House Sparrow, finches, and buntings.
Mid Apr to Jul in Europe.
Nest site predominantly in hole: in tree, building, earth bank, also in foundation of large nest, and mor rarely free-standing in branches of dense conifers and hawthorn.
Nest, free-standing nest is flattened sphere, with entrance on side leading to nest-cup: in hole, available space normally filled with material, though roof can be omitted.
2-7 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth slightly glossy. White to pale grey, heavily marked with spots, small blotches, or speckling, usually dark brown, sometimes purplish or greyish, often heavy enough to obscure ground. Markings usually concentrated around broad end. Great variation in size, shape, and color.
Incubation,11-14 days, by both sexes during day, female only at night.
Mainly sedentary, especially in west of range, with only small proportion undertaking relatively short-distance migration, mainly to S or S-W. Larger-scale autumn eruptive movements occur from time to time, particularly from more northerly from parts of range. Juveniles disperse locally from natal areas before settling down.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has increased with recent range extensions in Fenno-Scandia.
In Israel subspecies P. m. montanus accidental winter visitor.