|י528) זרזיר מצוי|
: זרזיר מצוי|
. שחור, מבריק בירוק ארגמני, קצות הנוצות מנוקדות בלבן במיוחד בחורף
. בקיץ המקור מצהיב. מזכיר שחרור אבל זנבו קצר יותר והתנהגותו זריזה יותר
. הזוויגים דומים אבל צבע הנקבה פחות מבריק וסביב עינה טבעת בהירה
. בית גידולו אירו-סיבירי ואירנו-טורני, מהרי אלטאי שבאסיה ועל מרבית אירופה
, בית חיותו יערות וחורשים דלילי עצים, שדות עם עצים פזורים, שטחים מעובדים
. פארקים וגנים ואף ליד מגורי אדם
. בארץ מבקרים בחורף 5 תת מינים נפוצים בלהקות ענק בכל רחבי הארץ
... לא לחינם הלך זרזיר אצל עורב אלא מפני שהוא מינו ... חולין ס"ב ע"ב
Subspecies and Distribution.|
S. v. vulgaris Europe from Iceland, Britain, Ireland, and France E to Volgograd, S to Pyrenees, N-W Spain,
mainland Italy W Greece, W Bulgaria, C Rumania, and Ukraine and European Russia.
Grading into poltaratskyi further E in European Russia and into tauricus Greece, European Turkey,
E Bulgaria , E Rumania, S Moldavia, and S-W Ukraine, E to to lower Dnepr. Introduced N America.
S. v. faroensis Faeroes. S. v. zetlandicus Shetland and Outer Hebrides. S. v. granti Azore.
S. v. poltaratskyi (synonym menzbieri) W Siberia W to S Urals and E Bashkiriya, E to Lake Baykal,
S through N Kazakhstan to Altay and W Mongolia, gading into porphyronotus between Sr foot of altai
and N foot of Dzhungarskiy Alatau and E Tien Shan.
S. v. tauricusS-E Ukraine, Crimea, and shores of Sea of Azov N to Konetsk area and E to
Rostov-na-Donu, and Novorossiysk, also Asia Minor E to at least C Anatolia.
S. v. purpurascens E Turkey, N Iraq, and W Transcaucasia.
S. v. caucasicus N Caucasus N-W to Stavropol and N-E to Volga delta, E Transcaucasia, and N, W and S-W Iran.
S. v. nobilior S Turkmenia, E Iran, and Afghanistan, grading into porphyronotus at S foot of Pamir-Alay mountains.
S. v. porphyronotus E Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan through Tien Shan to Sinkiang, N to Kara Tau and Dzhungrskiy Alatau.
S. v. humii W Himalayas. S. v. minor Sind (S Pakistan). םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
20-23 cm, 70-90 g, wing span 38-42 cm. Medium-sized, rakish but full-bodied, bustling passerine, with cheeky mien but marked wariness, epitome of family. Adult looks blackish at any distance but actually intricately patterned and shot with iridescence, so quite beautiful at close range. White spotted in winter.
Bill strikingly pale yellow on breeding birds. Flight fast, with silhouette recalling modern fighter aircraft more than any other bird.
Gait bustling. Song loud and chattering, includes, as calls, much mimicry. Sexes dissimilar, marked seasonal variation.
Habitat. In west Palearctic, breeds from upper to lower middle latitudes marginally to Arctic fringe and thence through boreal and temperate to steppe and Mediterranean climatic zones. Mainly in lowlands and uplands but in Alps breeds regularly up to 800 m and sparsely or locally even to 1500 m.
During rather brief breeding season must concentrate where suitable holes are available, either naturally in hollow trees, rock or clay crevices, or previously excavated burrows or holes, or artificially in apertures in buildings or other structures, drain pipes, and strawstacks.
Readiness to fly frequently over considerable distances permits breeding in open forests or near woodland margins, along rocky coastlines and in not too dense human settlements.
Food and Feeding.
Animal and plant material taken at all times of year but animal food predominates in spring and is fed almost exclusively to nestlings. Plant material forms high proportion of diet in autumn and winter. Seasonal chances in relative proportions of plant and animal foods paralleled by changes in intestine ength.
Animal food mainly insects and their larvae. Soft fruits taken in summer and autumn, and seeds, including cereals, in autumn and winter. forages mainly on ground in open areas of short grass or other short or sparse vegetation, cereal stubbles, and sometimes follows plough, also feeds in intertidal zone, on sewage treatment beds, refuse tips, farmyards, feeding areas for domestic stock.
Mid Apr to mid May in Germany, May-Jun in Finland.
Nest site, hole in tree, cliff, building, pylon, etc., occasionally in holes in ground where alternatives scarce.
Nest, bulky base of dry grasses and fine twigs, sometimes pine needles, size of this base dependent largely on size of cavity, and in roof spaces can be C. 1 m across, 25 cm deep. Cup constructed in part of nest cavity remote from entrance, with variable lining of finer materials, including grasses, rootlets, moss, feathers, wool, paper, etc., lining may be thicker in cooler climates.
5-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, sometimes ovoid, smooth with some gloss. Various shades of pale blue and occasionally white.
Incubation, 12-13 days, by female only.
Generally migratory in N and E of breeding range, although increasing tendency to remain resident in urban areas, partial migrant or resident in south and west. Young disperse or, in some populations, undertake more extensive directional movements.
Direction of autumn migration of adults predominantly to S-W, but more southerly in east of range and more westerly in west.
Migrtant populations winter western and southern Europe, Africa N of Sahara, Egypt, N Arabia, N Iran, and plains of N India.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Increase in peripheral parts of range, associated with range expansion, followed by marked recent decrease in several areas, especially N and C Europe.
In Israel five subspecies.
S. v. purpurascens abundant winter visitor, in N and C part.
S. v. tauricus a very common winter visitor, in N and C parts and in N Negev, Arava and Eilat.
S. v. vulagaris a very common winter visitor, in N and W parts.
S. v. caucasicus a scarce winter visitor, in northeastern parts, and Jordan River Valley.
S. v. poltaratskyi a scarce winter visitor, in N and C parts, fewer in Judean Hills and N Negev.