|י535) עורבני שחור-כיפה|
. הציבעוני מבין העורביים. צבעיו משתנים בין הזנים השונים
. הגוף חום ורדרד, בכנפיו כתמים כחולים ולבנים
. הזנב שחור ושתו לבן הבוהק למרחוק
. נוצות ראשו מזדקרות לעיתים. שירתו חקינית
. בית גידולו משתרע על פני אירופה כולה ועד לסין, קוריאה ויפן
. בצפון הודו ובצפון מערב אפריקה
. בית חיותו יערות וחורשים, שדות עם עצים פזורים מטעים גנים ואף בערים
. בארץ יציב שכיח בצפון ומרכז הארץ ובשולי אזורים מדבריים
... וישלח את העורב ... בראשית ח' 7
Subspecies and Distribution.|
G. g. glandarius Fenno-Scandia and European USSR E to Rechora basin, Kirov and Ulyanovsk, S to Ukraine, Rumania, N-W Bulgaria, N Yugoslavia, Alps, and France to Pyrenees, grading into brandtii in Pechora basin and Ulyanovsk E to W slopesw of C and S Urals.
G. g. rufitergum England, Wales, and Scotland. G. g. hibernicus Ireland. G. g. lusitanicus N Portugal and Salamanca, grading into glandarius in Galicia and W Pyrenees
G. g. fasciatus S and E Spain, grading into lusitanicus in S Portugal.
G. g. corsicanus Corsica.G. g. ichnusae Srdinia.
G. g. albipectus mainland Italy, Dalmatian coast of Yugoslavia, Albania, and Ionian Is., grading into nominate in N Italy, in mountains of W Yugoslavia and in E Albania.
G. g. jordansi Sicily. G. g. graecus S Yugoslavia, S from Kosovo and S Serbia, S Bulgaria S from Rila and Rodopi mountains, and mainland Greece W to Peloponnisos.
G. g. cretorum Crete. G. g. ferdinandi S-E Bulgaria and Istranca mountains (Turkey).
G. g. brandtii from N Urals and E slopes of C and S Urals E through Siberia to Lake Baykal, S to Altai and Sayan mountains.
G. g. bambergi Mongolia and Transbaykalia E to Sakhalin, S Kuril Is., Hokkaido, and Korea,grading into sinensis in Hopeh (China). G. g. kansuensis E Tien Shan and Kansu, China.
G. g. krynicki Kuban' area, Caucasus, Transcaucasia, and N Asia Minor W to about Samsun.
G. g. iphigenia Crimea.G. g. anatoliae Istanbul area, W Asia Minor, Lesbos, Khios, Rhodes, and Kos, S Asia Minor E to Van Golu, S to Latakia, N Iraq, and Zagros mountains.
G. g. samios Samos and Ikaria. G. g. atricapillus Lebanon, S Syria, Israe, and W Jordan. G. g. cervicalis Tunisia and N-E Algeria. G. g. whitakeri Tnger, and Er Rif and Tlemcen aria (N-W Algeria).
G. g. minor Atlas from Djelfa area W to Haut Atlas of Morocco.G. g. glaszneri Cyprus.
G. g. hyrcanus Elburz mountains and S shore of Caspian Sea.
4-6 races Japan and surrounding islands (except Hokkaido).
7-11 races, Himalayas, China, and Taiwan, S to W Burma and N Vietnam.
1 race, E Burma, s Yunnan, and Thailand to C Vietnam. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
34-35 cm, 160-190 g, wingspan 52-58 cm. Rather small corvid, most colorful of family in west palearctic, with short bill, domed head, broad wings, chesty body, broad wings, and rather long tail. west and central European races pink to grey-brown with black 'moustache', black, white-barred, and blue-splashed wings, bold white rump, and black tail. Other races differ especially in head pattern and overall color.
Flight jerky and weak-looking. Screeching call distinctive. Sexes similar, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds across wooded middle and lower middle latitudes of west Palearctic, mainly in continental temperate and Mediterranean climates, but marginally in oceanic, boreal, and wooded steppe zones. predominantly lowland, but in Carpathians to treeline at 1600 m.
Strongly arboreal and at home in fairly dense cover of trees, scrub, and woody undergrowth, especially in woodlands of oak, beech, and hornbeam, but also inhabits other broad-leaved and, in parts of range, coniferous forests. In some regions has spread into smaller outlying woodlands, spinneys, and copses, and even to urban and rural parkland, and to large gardens, where sometimes uses walls and stone ledges,
Food and Feeding.
Invertebrates, especially beetles and Lepidoptera larve, fruits and seeds, especially acorns. Small vertebrates occasionally taken, most often in winter or when feeding young, also carrion and domestic scraps.
During breeding season most food collected from leaves of trees, mainly caterpillars in oak, but otherwise forages principally on ground except when collecting acorns in autumn for storing.
Mid Apr to early Jun in Britain, end of Apr to early Jun in Finland, mid Apr to end of May in Switzerland, early Apr in N Africa.
Nest site in fork or on branch of tree or bush, often thorny, usually close to ro against trunk in middle of lower crown, or high in crown of young tree or of conifer.
Nest, rough foundation of twigs, with inside layer of soft, thinner twigs, roots, stalks, etc., lined with rootlets, bast, grass, moss, leaves, hair, and rarely feathers.
5-7 eggs, sub-elliptical or oval, smooth and slightly glossy or matt. Pale green to blue-green, olive, or olive-buff, occasionally sand-colored finely speckled all over with olive, light brown, or greyish-green, sometimes black hair-streaks at broad end.
Incubation, 16-18 days, by female only.
Sedentary in west and south of range, eruptive migrant in east and north. Eruptive migration of north and central European race, nominate, probably chiefly due to failure of acorn crop, notable years have included 1955, 77, 83. Heading usually ranges between W and SSW, with strong westerly component for eastern birds, movement in reverse of normal direction not uncommon, mostly influenced by leading-line effect of coastline or by weather.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Expansion in some places, following decrease in human persecution, has spread into suburban and urban habitats.
In Israel subspecies G. g. atricapillus abundant resident in north and central Israel, and in limited form in semi-deserts of northwestern Negev.