. הקטן בין העורבים, ראשו זקוף
. עורפו אפור שאר נוצותיו שחורות כחלחלות
. עורב זריז ופעלתן, הזויגים דומים
, בית גידולו משתרע על פני מרבית אירופה
. חודר למרכז אסיה ובחלקים של צפון אפריקה
. בית חיותו נופים שונים מהצפון ועד לערבות ים תיכוניות
. נמנע מחום או קור קיצוניים
. בארץ יציב שכיח בגליל, בשומרון ובצפון מדבר יהודה
... וישלח את העורב ... בראשית ח' 7
Subspecies and Distribution.|
C. m. monedula Scandinavia, S Finland, Denmark, E Germany and Poland, E to Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, N-W Rumania including Carpathian mountains, and N Yugoslavia.
C. m. sppermologus W Europe from Netherlands, W Germany, W Switzerland, Italy, and extreme N-W Yugoslavia westwards, from Britain S to Iberia, also, Morocco.
C. m. soemmerringii E Europe and W Asia, from S-W and C Yugoslavia and S and E Rumania southwards, and from S-E Finland and former USSR eastwards, E to Kashmir and Mongolia.
C. m. cirtensis N-E Algeria and Tunisia. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
33-34 cm, 200-280 g, wingspan 67-74 cm. Small, dapper, and bustling crow, with short bill and quite high head carriage. Black with grey rear to head and dull grey underparts from breast to vent. Eye pale in adult.
Sexes similar, little seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds across middle and upper middle latitudes of west Palearctic, in boreal, temperate, steppe, and Mediterranean lowlands, continental and oceanic. Tolerates wide ranges of precipitation and settled or unsettled weather, but avoids extremes of heat, ice, and snow. Needs sheltered nesting places, apparently adapting from main reliance on hollow or shady trees to rock crevices, holes in buildings of various kinds, and even burrows of rabbit.
Food and Feeding.
Invertebrates, fruits, seeds, carrion, and scraps. Sometimes small vertebrates of birds' eggs. Food of nestlings predominantly invertebrates.
Generally feeds in pairs or small flocks, almost wholly on ground, though will forage seasonally in tree-tops for defoliating caterpillars, beetles, or even acorns, though rarely seen on woodland floor.
Early Apr to mid May in Britain and Ireland, end of Apr to end of May in whit a little variation in Europe.
Nest site, hole or caviy in tree, rock-face, and man-made structure. Very often in old tree-hole of Black Woodpecker.
Nest, very variable in size and structure depending on nature of cavity, chimney or hollow tree sticks thrown in hole until they lodge, and nests often re-used, so foundation can be huge or suspended just below cavity entrance.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy. Pale light blue to greenish-blue with very variable specks and blotches of blackish-brown to light olive, pale grey, or greyish-violet, becoming larger towards broad end.
Incubation 17-18 days, by female only.
Resident to migratory, wintering almost entirely within breeding range. Birds head mostly west or WSW, so some birds of northern race nominate and eastern race soemmerringii winter in range of western race spermologus. In Britain, tends to move more than other Corvidae.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Has decreased recently in many parts of Europe.
In Israel subspecies C. m. soemmerringii fairly common local resident in Galilee, Shomron, N Judean Desert.