|י541) עורב אפור|
. עורב נפוץ, גדול ובולט באזורנו. גופו אפור ושאר חלקי גופו שחורים
. מקורו עבה, חזק ונטוי מעט כלפי מטה. רגליו חזקות וזנבו מעוגל. הזוויגים דומים
. צבעי תת המינים משתנה משחור כליל לשחורים אפורים
, בית הגידול של שלושת אוכלוסיותיו המבודדות משתרע על פני דרום מערב אירופה
. דרום מזרח אירופה ובמזרח התיכון ודרום מזרח אסיה
. בית חיותו בארץ בעיקר במישור החוף, בעמקים, ליד מגורי אדם ולצידי כבישים
. בארץ יציב שכיח ביותר בעיקר במרכז וצפון הארץ
... וישלח את העורב ... בראשית ח' 7
Subspecies and Distribution.|
C. c. corone from England and Wales S to Iberia and S slopes of Alps, E to Holstein and Elbe valley, W Czechoslovakia, and Austria, grading into cornix in southern Scotland, S Denmark, N-W and C of former East Germany, C Czechoslovakia, border of Austria with Hungary and Yugoslavia, and S Alps.
C. c. orientalis E-C Iran N to Aral Sea and Turgay depression, E in N through S Kazakhstan to W Altai and in S through S and E Afghanistan and Kashmir, Sinkiang, Mongolia, C and N China, Korea, and Japan.
C. c. cornix Ireland, Isle of Man, Scotland, Faeroes, Denmark, and Fenno-Scandia, E to Yenisey valley, S in W to E part of former East Germany, E Czechoslovakia, Hungary, N-W Rumania, N Yugoslavia, N Italy, and Corsica.
C. c. sharpii Sardinia, Sicily, S mainland Italy, and from coastal and S Yugoslavia, E Rumania, and Bulgaria south to Greece and Crete, and from Moldova and Turkey, E through S Ukraine and N Kazakhstan to W Altai and through Caucasus area and N Iran E to C Turkmenia and N Khorasan.
C. c. pallescens Cyprus, S-E and S coast of Turkey, Levant, N Iraq, and Egypt.
C. c. capellanus Iraq and neighbouring S-W Iran, from Ar Ramadi and Kirkuk S-E to Al Faw and Bushire. םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
45-47 cm, 350-450 g, wingspan 93-103 cm. Large, quite powerful, heavy-billed crow, either all black or with contrasting grey back and underbody. Lacks any grace or attractive feature, unlike other similar common west Palearctic crows, and does not show loose thigh feathers Rook.
Sexes similar, little seasonal variation but wide range of intergradation between black and hooded birds in Britain, N Europe, and Mediterranean region.
Habitat. Breeds in west Palearctic from sub-arcticand boreal through temperate to Mediterranean, steppe, and desert zones, up to 1000 m, often moorland above 300 m, and is much more often found nesting on rocks, cliff ledges, and even on banks or islands on ground among heather. In Low Countries, breeds in parks and woodlands intersected by fields or clearings, but also in many polders and wooded dunes, or along lines of trees bordering water channels.
Food and Feeding.
Principally invertebrates and cereal grain. Also small vertebrates, birds' eggs, carrion, and scraps, proportions varyig greatly according to local availability.
In general, a ground-feeder and scavenger in agricultural landscapes, typically in pasture or rough grassland in spring and summer, arable fields in autumn and winter, when also nearer to towns, farms, woods, etc, Favourite sites include dung-rich pasture, hayfields, fields of cereal after harvest, areas by water, and rubbish tips, often exploiting rich food sources to exclusion of others. Commonly follows plough.
Mid Mar to end of May in Britain, mid Apr to mid May in Finland, mid Jan to late Apr in Israel.
Nest site, high in tree at woodland edge, in small stand, or isolated, also on pylon or telephone pole, more rarely on cliff, rock, building, or ground, if no high trees or pylons vailable.
Nest, rigid but elastic construction typically in 4 layers. Foundation of stout, short twigs mostly snapped off trees and bushes, sometimes with leaves, held together by layer of turf and moss, which is followed by smaller twigs, stalks, roots, and commonly runners of couch grass, then lining of bast, bark strips, grass, wool, feathers, etc., and much soft man-made aterial.
3-6 eggs, short sub-elliptical to long oval, smooth and glossy. From light blue to green with very variable speckles, spots, blotches, and scrawls of olive-green to blackish-brown, sometimes obscuring ground color, often concentrated at broad end.
Incubation, 18-19 days, by female only.
Varies from migratory in north of range to sedentary in south and west. Many populations partially migratory. Winters almost entirely within breeding range. Migrants move mainly south-west or south . Movements diurnal, often in flocks.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. No changes reported, except for expansion of range in northern Russia, Israel, and Egypt.
In Israel subspecies C. c. sardonius abundant resident throughout north and central Israel.