|י543) עורב שחור|
. הגדול מבין העורבים וציפורי השיר. גופו גדול, מוצק ורב כח
. צבעו שחור מבריק בגוון כחול-סגול וירוק
. מקורו מגושם ונוצות גרונו מדובללות
. במעופו נראה כצלב בגלל צווארו וזנבו הארוכים
, בית גידולו משתרע על פני אירופה כולה, אסיה וצפון אמריקה
. למעט מספר אזורים באסיה
, בית חיותו נופים גלויים הרריים, טונדרות, חופים ומדבר
. בינות ליערות מחטניים או רחבי עלים, מצוקים לחופי ים ומורדות הרים
. בארץ יציב לא שכיח בהרי צפון הארץ ומרכזה
. העורב השחור הוא הציפור הלאומית של בהוטן
... וישלח את העורב ... בראשית ח' 7
Subspecies and Distribution.|
C. r. ruficollis Cape Verde Is., and N Africa E to Middle East and Arabia to Transcaspia and W Pakistan, S to Sahel zone and Sudan, also Socotra.
C. c. corax Europe and Asia from Scandinavia, Britain, and France E to Yenisey basin, grading into kamtschaticus between Yenisey and Lena basins and in area round Lake Baykal, S to Pyrenees, mainland Italy, Balkan countries, W Greece, N-E Turkey, Transcaucasia, N Iran, basin of middle Volga, S Urals, and Kazakhstan. Grades into hispanus on Sardinia and perhaps Corsica and Sicily.
C. c. hispanus Iberia and Balearic Is.
C. c. laurencei (synonym subcoras E Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Levant, Iraq, Iran, and from lower Volga basin E through Transcaspia to plains and hills of eastern Kazakhstan, Sinkiang, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and N-W India. C. c. tingitanus Morocco to N-W Egypt. C. c. canariensis Canary Is.
C. c. varius Faeroes and Iceland. C. c. principalis N and E North America and Greenland.
C. c. kamtschaticus E Siberia, S to N and W Mongolia, N Manchuria, Amurland, and Hokkaido.
C. c. tibetnus mountains of C Asia from Tien Shan and pamir-Alay. C. c. sinuatus from Rockies to Nicaragua . םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
64 cm, 1000-1300g, wingspan 120-150 cm. Huge, majestic, and powerful black crow, with superb flight but at times playful nature. Cruciform silhouette when soaring. Differing from all other west Palearctic crows in deep, massive bill, flat head, shaggy throat, long, deep body, long, broad wings, strong legs and feet, and rather long, wedge-ended tail.
Sexes similar, no seasonal variation.
Habitat. Breeds almost throughout west Palearctic, except for certain densely settled and cultivated regions, from Arctic to tropics. Ranges from sea-level to C 2400 m in Alps and Altai, and in Tibet exceptionally to 5800 m.
Overriding requirements are for nest-site of difficult access, normally on rrock-face or tall tree, and wide, largely undisturbed foraging area with tracts of open surface of any kind on which long-range food-gathering, often involving high flights, can be practised.
Thus avoids interior of large or dense forests, scrub woodland, thickets, shrubby terrain, wetlands with tall aquatic vegetation, orchards, plantations, field crops, and intensively farmed or grazed lands. Coasts with cliffs, even in windy and chilly climates, often satisfy, especially where they afford respite from human persecution.
Food and Feeding.
Plant and animal material, taken opportunistically. Animal food may be killed with powerful bill, or scavenged as carrion, refuse, etc. Also robs nests and takes invertebrates.
Plant material mainly cereals and fruits, Where carrion plentiful, usually takes food mostly by scavenging. Usually forages on ground away from cover, and commonly on rubbish-tips, near slaughterhouses, on tide line, etc., and where not persecuted, scavenges boldly around dwellings, particularly of nomadic herdsmen. Will follow the plough, and frequently on fields where dung has been spread.
Mid Feb to mid Apr in Britain, late Mar in Finland, 2nd half of Mar to mid May in Russia, Apr in N Africa.
Nest site, high up tree, isolated or generally at forest edge, inland or coastal cliff, or man-made structure.
Nest, basically in 4 fairly distinct layers: outer foundation of sticks, twigs, or woody stems up to C. 150 cm long, neatly woven with fresh twigs, which sometimes form distinct rim, then layer of earth, dung, grass, and roots, at times making bowl, but can be completely absent, particularly if ground still snow-covered. This is lined with moss, grass, rootlets, leaves, etc., then finally compacted layer of wool, hair, fur, grass, lichen, stems, etc.
4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and slightly glossy. Light blue to blue-green with very variable olive to blackish-brown blotches, spots, scrawls, or hair-streaks usually concentrated towards broad end.
Incubation,20-21 days, by female only.
Populations S of C 60'N essentially sedentary, but some immatures make extensive movements. Northern populations mainly sedentary and dispersive, but more prone to make southward movements in winter.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Recent increases over much of northern and central Europe due to reduction of persecution.
In Israel subspecies C. c. subcorax quite rare resident in mountainous regions of north and central Israel.