|י109) עזניית הנגב|
. הגדולה והנדירה בין הנשרים בארצנו
. רחבת כנפים וצבעה חום, מקורה גדול ועור ראשה וגרונה חשוף ואדום
. במעופה ניכר פס בהיר בקדמת כנפה, ורגליה הבהירות. מוטת כנפה מגיע ל2.80 ס"מ
. בית גידולה מישורים גלויים , סבנות ואזורים מדבריים למחצה שעצים מצויים בהם
. בארץ יציבה נדירה ביותר
... הנשר הפרס והעזניה ... דברים יד' 12
Subspecies and Distribution.
T. t. tracheliotus - SW Morocco S Mauritania to Ethiopia and Knya to S Africa.
T. t. nubicus - Egypt to Sudan.
T. t. negevensis - Israel and Arabia Peninsula.םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
115 cm;5400-9400g, mean 6780g; wingspan 280 cm. Very large, although size often exaggerated: in E Africa, averages considerably lighter (6200 g) than symptric G. ruppellii (7400 g), Colour of head and exposureof lappets partly dependent on mood and temperatur. Whitedown on adult's patagia and thighs forms distinctive flight pattern. Juvenile brown with some down on head, dark horn-coloured bill and no pale areas on underparts.Races recognized on extent of lappets and bald head, and on colour of bill and thighs, but considerable individual variationmay be clinal; negevensis has patagia buff-coloured.
Steppe and desert, where isolated flat-topped trees provide nest-sites: takes up to more mesic open savanna and woodland,breeding up to 2800 m.
Food and Feeding
Carrion, skin and bone fragments from large and small carcasses. Mainly scavenges, credited with killing some small animals but may pirate from other raptors.
Usually in pairs, but up to 50 birds may gather with other vultures at larger carcasses or at water.
May dominate all other scavenging birds at a carcass, with bounding attack display, but often spends more time in social interaction than feeding, returning later to use heavy bill for rending skin and sinew.
Laying usually in dry season: Oct-Jan in W.Africa, Dec-Feb inNE.Africa and Middle East, Feb-Jul. Builds extensive platform of sticks, lined withdry grass, usually on a short, exposed thorny tree. Several nests from previousattempts may be found nearby, and [aers nest either alone or somewhat clumped within an areaof suitablehabitat. Single egg (rarely 2); chick has first down white and second downgrey;fledging125-135 days; may still be fed regularly by parents a yare after fledging.
No regular movements described, except for W.Africa where apparentshift Nduring the tains and S during the dry season. Adults may forage over 200km from the nest, and juveniles known to have dispersed at least 700 km.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. CITES II. Thinly scatterd as a breedingspecies throughout its wide range, with concentrations of upto c.40 pairsfound only in Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Tanzania and possibly Arabia. Decline in NE.Africa during1930's, and mor recently in Algeria, and now extinct in both ateas; also rangereduction in South Africa and Namibia, were poisoning implicated, and in Sudan. Onlyone pair out of at least 30 remained in Israel by 1989 and only 10 pairs in Upper Egypt, suggesting that the relatively small populationof race negevensis might be vulnerable, but a good number of breeding pairsrecently discovered occupying substantial part of interior of Saudi Arabia. A small captive breeding population exists at Tel Aviv (Israel).
Israel. In Israel the subspecies T. t. negevensis.. Currently extremely rare resident.