י150) רלית המים


Water Rail
Water Rail
Water Rail








Rallus aquaticus
Rallus aquaticus
Rallus aquaticus



:רלית
, גודלה כגודל תור, גבה חום מפוספס בשחור
צווארה וגחונה אפורים. צידי גופה המפוספסים ושתה האפור
. מבדילים אותה מהסופית
. מקורה אדום, ארוך וכפוף מעט מבדיל אותה משאר בני המשפחה
. בית גידולה ביצות וגדות נחלים
. בארץ עוברת אורח וחורפת מצויה
.
Subspecies and Distribution.
R. a. hibernans Icland.
R. a. aquaticus Europe, N Africa and W Asia. Winters S to N Africa and Turkmenistan.
R. a. korejeqi Aral Sea to Balkhash t0 Iran, Kashmir and W C China. winters from Iraq to China.
R. a. indicus Mongolia and Siberia to Korea and Japan. Winters from Bengal, Thailand and Laos to S E China and Taiwan and S Japan.
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Descriptive notes.
25-28 cm, 74-190g wingspan 40-45 cm.
In 60% of nominate birds, variable number of greater and median upperwing coverts have white bars, black feathers, white markings may also occur on alula (bastard wing), primary covers and even remiges.
Undertail coverts usually white but may have variable amounts of buff, and sometimes show black baring.
female smeller with shorter bill.
Habitat.
Any type of dense riparian and aquatic vegetation at still or slow-moving water.
Breeding habitat includes reedbeds and other emergent vegetation of swamps, marshes and fens.
Mainly lowland, but resident up to 2000 m.
Food and Feeding.
Diet many terrestrial and aquatic insects and teir larvae, worms, leeches, molluscs, shrimps and spiders.
Small vertebrates, killed or as carrion, including amphibians, fish, birds and mammals.
Plant foods include shoots, roots, seeds, berries and fruits.
Breeding
Mar-Aug in w and C Europe, MaY-Jun in Morocco and Algeria, Jon-Aug in Kashnir.
Monogamous highly territorial when breeding.
Nests a substantial cup of dead leaves and plant stems, usually in thick vegetation of reeds or rushes on ground near or in water, rarely on tree stump or in open, both sexes build.
6-11 eggs. Incubation 18-22 days, by both sexes.
Movements.
Sedentary and migratory, birds from N of range moving S and SW to winter in Mediterranean basin, N Africa and E to S Casian area.
In Europe and Russia autumn migration begins Aug, peaks Sep-Ocr ends Dec. Spring migration begins Feb and end by May
Passes through Morocco, Algeria, Egypt and Libya. Race hiberbabs probably migrates to Faeroes in winter, occurs on passage at Scottish Is. and in winter in Ireland, and wanders to Greenland. Race korejewi partly migratory and wanders to NW India and Arabia. Race indicus largely migratory, occurring in winter S to Borneo.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. No evidence of significant changes in status of nominate race, which is regarded as locally common over much of range.
Israel. In Israel two subspecies R. a. aquaticus and R. a. korejeqi. Fairly common passage migrant and also winter visitor.

R. a. aquaticus
(in Israel)

R. a. aquaticus

R. a. indicus

R. a. korejeqi
(in Israel)

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