|י154) ברודית גדולה|
. גבה מפוספס בצבע לבן ותחתית זנבה בצבע החול
, בזמן מעופה מתגלים כתמים בהירים בכנפיה הצרות והמעוגלות
. הצבועות בצבע חום כהה
, נוהגת להסתתר ונראית לרוב בשעות בין הערבים, בעת חפוש מזון
. בשולי מקווי מים בוציים העטורים בצמחיה עבותה
. בארץ עוברת אורח וחורפת מצויה למדי
Subspecies and Distribution.
Porzana porzana British Is. to Spain and to Scandinavia, Mediterranean and Balkans to W C Russia, Cucasus and Iran, Kazakhstan and China.
Winters Mediterranean and Middle East to S W Africa, Pakistan and India.םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם םםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםםם
22-24 cm, 55-145 gr, wingspan 37-42 cm. Rather plump crake, readily distinguished from sympatric rallids on size, lack of extensive grey on underparts, buff undertail-coverts. Yellow bill with greenish tip and orange-red spot at base of upper mandible.
White leading edge to wing well visible in flight.
Sexes similar, male in non-breeding plumage has les grey and more spotting on face and underparts, female has less grey and more spots than male on these areas in color of undertail-coverts from dark feather tips to black and white barring.
freshwater wetlands with dense cover of sedges and rushes, grass and other emergents, sometimes with trees. Frequents areas where substrate moist, muddy or flooded.
Occurs in marshes and fens, at sewage ponds, pools in flooded grassland and at margins of dams, lakes and sluggish rivers.
Food and Feeding
Omnivorous, mainly small aquatic invertebrates and parts of aquatic plants.
Takes earthworms, molluscs, insects and small fish stranded in drying pools.
Plant material includes algae, shoots, leaves and roots, and seeds.
Forages in water up to 5-7 cm deep, and on wet to dry mud, picks food from surface of substrate and immerses head in water. Most active early and late in the day.
Apr-Jul in Europe. Monogamous, pair-bond maintained only during breeding season.
Territorial when breeding and also in winter quarters.
Nest a thick-walled cup of dead leaves and stems of available vegetation, placed in thick vegetation close to or over standing water, in tussock or built up well above water level, concealing vegetation often pulled over to form canopy.
Both sexes build. Usually 8-12 eggs, incubation 18-24 days by both sexes. Black downy chick has green gloss on head, throat and upperparts, iris grey to brown-black, upper mandible red at base yellow in middle and white at tip.
Age of first breeding 1 year. Usually double brooded.
European birds move S to SW in autumn. Autumn dispersal begins Jul,some birds halt in Aug to moult, and are flightless for 2-3 weeks. Most reach or pass Mediterranean by mid Nov, passage recorded Egypt and Sudan Sep-Oct.
Passage through N Africa and Mediterranean more marked in spring, suggesting that more birds overfly these regions in autumn. Return movements recorded Morocco to Libya and Sudan Mar-May. Birds of unknown origin pass through Iraq and Near East, passage Saudi Arabia and Aden Apr-Nov.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatened. Numbers fluctuate widely in most areas, but decreases evident over most of European range during present century.
Israel. In Israel subspecies porzana porzana. Scarce autumn and uncommon spring passage migrant and quite rare winter visitor throughout most low-lying parts.