|י163) חרטומית בנגלית
. רגליה ארוכות ומקורה קצר ומכופף בקצהו
. הנקבה צבעונית יותר מהזכר, צוארה חלודי, לזכר הצבע חום-אפור
בשעת מעופה רגליה משורבבות ובקצות כנפיה המעוגלות
. מתגלים כתמים עגולים בצבע החול
בית גידולה ביצות ומקוי מים מתוקים בעלי גדות עטורים וסבוכים
. בצמחיה עשבונית ועצי מנגרוביה
. בארץ מזדמנת באקראי נדירה ביותר
Subspecies and Distribution.
R. b. benghalensis Africa and Madagascar, Pakistan to NW China, SE Russia and Japan and through SE Asia and Philippines to Lesser Sundas.
R. b. australis Australia.
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23-30 cm, 90-200 g, wingspan 50-55 cm.
Strong sexual dimorphism in plumage and also in size. Male has golden eye-patch, crown stripe and V on mantle, rest of head greyish brown, with ashy grey on neck, and throat streaked whitish. Extensive golden buff on upperparts, especially upperwing coverts. Rest of underparts and underwing white.
Female longer winged, and brighter and more clearly patterned, head and neck mostly dark rufous, eye-patch clean white. Most of upperparts, including wings, dark bronze green, barred finely with black.
Both sexes differ from South American Painted-snipe in larger size, straighter bill and many details of plumage, tail rounded. Race australis averages considerably longer winged, no significant plumage difference.
Lowlands in subtropical and tropical wetlands, affects swamps, reedbeds, and muddy margins of pools, freshwater lakes with grassy islets, sewage pools, even mud flats overgrown with marsh grass and mangroves.
Habitat use governed by rains, and tends to favour recently flooded areas. Occasionally feeds on more open grassland, adjacent to wetlands.
Food and Feeding
Omnivorous. Invertebrates taken include insects, earthworms, crustaceans and snails. Also seeds, including a variety of grasses, rice and millet.
Probes soft ground like true snipes, also uses scything action of bill and head in shallow water. Chiefly crepuscular, and may also feed at night. Usually solitary, occasionally in small parties, exceptionally large groups or up to 100.
Immediately after rains in Africa, Mar-Jun in W Africa, Aug-Nov in S Africa, but extensive local variation elsewhere, covering all months, also breeds throughout much of year in Asia.
Solitary nster, but nests may be grouped together due to polyandrous behaviour.
Nests on groumd, sometimes on low hummock or mound, normally concealed in thick, marshy vegetation, on dense mat of floating water weed. Nest is shallow cup usually lined with leaves and stems, occasionally built up with interwoven plant material. 4 eggs, female may lay up to clutches in one season, incubation 15-20 days. Downy chicks pale buff with bold pattern of lines on upperparts, greyish below. First breeding probably occursafter 1 yeqr in male, 2 years in female.
Sedentary in Asia and in Egypt. Short migrations reported from NE China, India and Japan. Within Africa performs seasonal, but irregular, short distance movements,responding to feeding and breeding habitat requirements, principally in N tropics.
Accidental in Afghanistan, Israel(where recently found breeding, but there is no definite proof), Oman, Somalia and Tibet and Tasmania.
Status and Conservation.
Not globally threatend. Generally uncommon to frequent and even locally common.
Israel. In Israel subspecies R. b. benghalensis. Occasional and irregular spring and summer visitor.